Republic of Korea
The summary in this section was provided by Keyyong Hong, Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute (KORDI)
The budget and number of projects for ocean energy RD&D (Research, Development and Demonstration) continued to grow in Korea in 2012. They are mainly funded by Government programmes led by MLTM (Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs) and MKE (Ministry of Knowledge) but the involvement from private sectors has also increased particularly in the tidal current device development.
The renewable energy policy of RPS (Renewable Portfolio Standard), which applies a different REC (Renewable Energy Certificate) value to each renewable energy source, has been enacted in Korea since 2012. The Sihwa tidal barrage and Uldolmok tidal current power plants are being operated continuously though more ocean energy plants were installed and tested in Korean coastal waters in 2012. The Sihwa power plant is still in controlled operation and has produced 396,210 MWh from 1 August 2011 to 30 September 2012. About 553,000 MWh annual production is expected as it begins full operation.
Ocean Energy Policy
Strategy and National Targets
The strategic plan for ocean energy development in Korea is based on “The 3rd National Plan for Technology Development, Use and Diffusion of New and Renewable Energy”, in which the national vision, long-term goal, strategy and action plan for new and renewable energy development for the period of 2009~2030 have been established. It has also proposed an establishment of laws and regulations for the efficient enforcement of the strategic plan. The action plan for ocean energy development is divided into 3 phases.
In the first phase, until 2012, ocean energy RD&D is mainly funded by the Government and it focuses on the development of core technologies that are suitable to coastal area.
In the second phase, from 2013 to 2020, the role of industries will gradually increase in both funding and RD&D and the technologies that are applicable in open sea will be exploited.
In the third phase, from 2021 to 2030, the industries will lead commercial development for ocean energy resources and the hybrid utilisation of technologies combining multiple ocean energy resources will be activated.
Korea targets to supply 11% of national energy demand from new and renewable energy by 2030, and the ocean energy contributes with 4.7% to the total new and renewable energy supply, which amounts to 1,540kTOE.
Support Initiatives and Market Stimulation Incentives
The RPS policy as a primary promotion tool for renewable energy including ocean energy was enforced on 13 utility companies with a total capacity larger than 500MW in 2012, replacing the Feed-In Tariff (FIT) policy initiated in 2002. It requires the companies to supply 2% of total electricity production by renewable energy in 2012 and to increase its portion to 10% in 2022. The policy applies a Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) value, which varies depending on the resource type and conditions, such as distance from coastline, capacity and installation method. The REC of tidal barrage with embankment is 1.0 while the one without embankment is 2.0. The REC has not been determined for other ocean energies.
Main Public Funding Mechanisms
The public funding for renewable ocean energy is led by the two Government ministries of MLTM and MKE Economy which operate the national RD&D programme for ocean energy. MLTM supports mainly demonstration projects under the “Practical Ocean Energy Technology Development Programme”. MKE funds mostly fundamental R&D projects under “New and Renewable Technology Development Programme”.
FIGURE 1: Budget of Ocean Energy RD&D Projects Funded by MLTM
FIGURE 2: Number of Ocean Energy RD&D Projects Funded by MKE
Relevant Legislation and Regulation
The primary national acts for renewable energy development are “Framework Act on Low Carbon, Green Growth” established in 2010 and “Act on the Promotion of the Development, Use and Diffusion of New and Renewable Energy” in 1987. The former was enacted to promote the development of the national economy by laying a foundation for low carbon, green growth and by utilising green technology and green industries as new energies for growth. The latter was initiated to contribute to the preservation of the environment, the sound and sustainable development of national economy, and the promotion of national welfare by diversification of energy sources, environment-friendly conversion of the energy structure and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, some of important national acts on energy include “Energy Act” in 2006, “Energy Use Rationalization Act” in 1979 and “Integrated Energy Supply Act” in 1991. The primary regulatory measures for marine environment protection in ocean energy development include “Framework Act on Marine Fishery Development” in 2002, which determines the Government basic policy and its directions for the national management, preservation, development and utilisation of the sea and marine resources, “Conservation and Management of Marine Ecosystems Act” in 2006, and “Marine Environment Management Act” in 2007.
Relevant Documents Released
The national strategy and roadmap for renewable ocean energy development is still based on the “RD&D Strategy 2030 for New and Renewable Energy – Ocean” and “Development of Activity Plan on Ocean Energy R&D Programme”, in 2009, which are released by the MKE and MLTM respectively. The MKE will publish the “White Paper on New and Renewable Energy 2012” in early 2013. A planning report on potential test sites for wave and tidal energy devices has been prepared based on a preliminary feasibility study and a survey project to identify target sites was recommended.
Research & Development
Tidal Energy R&D Projects
Wave Energy R&D Projects
Operational Ocean Energy Projects
Since the Sihwa tidal barrage power plant of 254MW capacity began its operation in August 2011, it had produced 396,210 MWh by the end of September 2013. It is expected to produce 552 GWh annually as it operates fully.
Sihwa Tidal Power Plant (254MW)
The HyTide 110-5.3 horizontal axis tidal turbine, a product of Voith Hydro with rated power of 110 kW and diameter of 5.3m, was installed in Jindo of Korea in the Spring of 2011. The site was used to test the turbine under extreme conditions. It has been tested for three months in 2012, resulting in the availability of 94% and rotor power peak of 130 kW.
Installation of HyTide 110-5.3 of Voith Hydro
The Yongsoo wave power plant, a pilot plant of 500kW OWC (Oscillating Water Column) wave energy converter which has been developed by KIOST and funded by MLTM, is being constructed at Yongsoo, Jeju of Korea. However, its completion has been delayed for more than a year, mainly because of exceptionally frequent typhoons in the region during the summer period of 2012. The construction of the caisson structure and underwater power cable will be finished in the second quarter of 2013. Then the installation of the generation equipment will be followed in the third quarter, expecting to start the test operation in late October 2013. A couple of turbines and generators of 250 kW capacity were manufactured in 2010 and an integrated system of generator and power control module was extensively tested in the laboratory of Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute in 2011. A caisson structure of 15,000 tonnes has been constructed at a test site, which is 1 km off the coastline of Yongsoo in April 2012. An underwater cable between the caisson structure and a power house on land is being deployed and it will be connected to
the national grid later.
Construction of Caisson Structure for Yongsoo Wave Power Plant