Country Reports


SUPPORTING POLICIES FOR OCEAN ENERGY
 

NATIONAL STRATEGY
Norway currently has no dedicated policy towards ocean energy, but ocean energy is included in more general renewable energy policies and programmes.


MARKET INCENTIVES
Norway and Sweden have been in a joint green certificate market since 2012. One certificate per MWh has been given to all new renewable energy generation for 15 years, independent of technology, since 2012. From year 2022, Norway will no longer participate in the scheme, while Sweden will increase their target build-out under the scheme with 18 TWh by 2030.

The Norwegian energy production that may be certified for certificates until 31.12.2020 in the so called transitional scheme; however, Norwegian projects will receive certificates only until 31.12.2035, even if the project is approved for certificates under the transitional scheme.


PUBLIC FUNDING PROGRAMMES
The Norwegian Energy Agency, Enova, offers capital grants for full scale demonstration projects of ocean renewable production. While up to 50% of eligible costs can be covered, Enova’s funding measured in absolute figures is limited. In addition, Enova has a programme that supports demonstration of new energy technology on the basis that the technology is applied in Norway.

Innovation Norway runs a programme supporting prototypes within “Environmental friendly technology”. Ocean energy is included in this definition. Projects are supported with up to 45% of eligible costs. The Research Council of Norway runs an energy research programme called ENERGIX. This programme supports R&D within all renewable energy technologies.

 


RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
Stadt Towing Tank (STT) was founded in 2007 to deliver test and research services to the marine industry. The main market for STT has been ship designers in the maritime cluster of north-western Norway, but projects related to renewable energy have also been tested. Wave energy converters, windmill installation concepts, windmill foundation solutions and windmill service vessels are among the renewable energy projects.

 


TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION
 

OPEN SEA TEST SITES

Runde Environmental Centre (REC), located on Runde Island on the Norwegian west coast (http://www.rundecentre.no), can accommodate wave energy projects for test and demonstration at several sites. One has a 3 km/0.5 MW sea cable to shore with grid connection. REC facilitates preparations, licensing, deployment and monitoring of the WECs, and works also on other forms of ocean energy, building national competence and capacity.

REC hosts other subsea tests for anti-corrosion and anti-fouling. In 2016, a new bathymetric dataset, with 1x1 m resolution, was released by REC, for public use. This unique material is very useful when it comes to licensing and siting of Ocean Energy devices in the area. The same applies to the wave forecasting model installed in co-operation with the Norwegian Meteorological office. REC is currently hosting Waves4Power’s grid connected 100 kW prototype.

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OPERATIONAL PROJECTS

Waves4Power
The first operational, grid connected wave energy buoy project in Norway was launched on 2 June 2017. The Swedish technology company Waves4Power has developed and produced a 100 kW energy converter, which is currently undergoing long term grid connected testing at the Runde Environmental Centre (REC). The anchored buoy – Wave-EL – is connected to a stand-alone buoy-mounted transformer. The transformer is readied for additional 9 connections, and so a power plant-sized future demonstration is technically feasible.


PLANNED DEPLOYMENTS

Tide Tec
Over the last year Tidetec has completed its model turbine, and although the turbine needs some final adjustments before it can be built in a full scale version, the company considers the proving of the mechanical and hydrodynamical aspects of the turbine to be completed. New is that the design of the periphery is changed to a dry-running sealed generator. The company has taken some significant steps in 2017: Tidetec have secured the IP in Norway through a new patent, which currently has moved further to a PCT application (European and worldwide patent). This patent is to protect the IP of the “rolling turret”, which is fundamentally different from the original Tidetec concept. The application is currently also delivered in Europe (EPC), and a conclusion on this application will be given during 2018.

Tidetec have proven the technology further with a functioning model turbine, tested at TUM in Munich. Tidetec have established contact with Atlantis, who has invited the company to tender for the Wyre barrage project. A consortium consisting of Rainpower, EPCI company, Zhefu (Chinese turbine manufacturer) is thus being developed in order to bid for the tender.


Havkraft
Havkraft AS is working in close relation with HydroWave AS in a common bid to commercialize the technology. Together, the companies are providing local energy from wave power with Guarantees of Origin; either directly as electricity in hybrid with batteries, or through Hydrogen storage.

The prototype testing of the Havkraft Wave Energy Converter (H-WEC) in real sea environment at Stad was completed in 2015.

Moreover, the first commercial contract was signed in 2017 with Ålesund-based Uksnøy & Co, for the replacement of diesel fuels directly on offshore installations: A low hanging fruit for this powerful, patented and flexible technology. Both companies are headed by founder, inventor and main shareholder Geir Arne Solheim.

The Norwegian Prime Minister, Erna Solberg (left), visited Havkraft/HydroWave to get more information on their wave power technology in Florø, 7 November 2017. The solution has been lifted up by Innovation Norway, amongst others. The ship model Geo Barents is demonstrating a hybrid wave power system on the slip side. Present to show the PM were Geir A. Solheim (middle) and Øystein Uksnøy (right).

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Deep River
Deep River has continued the development on an easily deployable “Drop & Go” power plant, weighing 100 kg. This micro plant will be able to produce from 1 kW to 20 kW, and may be hooked up through a battery-pack. The Drop & Go system is ready for a commercial market as of 2016. Deep River aims at an international market, seizing on the opportunity for local power production, off-grid solution, energy storage and easy grid connection. The technology has been developed in close collaboration with Norwegian and international universities, as well as with international suppliers and developers.

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RELEVANT NATIONAL EVENTS

The Ocean Energy Bill, which regulates renewable offshore energy production, entered into force on 1 July 2010. According to this new legislation, licenses to build offshore wind, wave and tidal farms in certain far shore geographical areas cannot be given without a prior governmental process where suitable areas are identified.

As a follow up to the Ocean Energy Bill, the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) identified 15 areas that could be suitable for large scale offshore wind power. More detailed “strategic consequence assessments” was finalized late 2012. In the 2016 white paper on energy policy (Meld. St. 25 2015-2016), the areas pointed out by NVE are mentioned as potentially delivering 50 TWh, fully developed. With the Parliamentary debate on the national budget for 2018, came a call from Parliament for the Government to open areas for licensing. The Ministry of Petroleum and Energy said at the end of 2017 that it will designate one or two areas that will be opened for licencing of commercial scale ocean energy production “as soon as possible”.

 

MARINE SPATIAL PLANNING POLICY
Offshore renewable energy is governed by the Ocean Energy Bill since 2010.

According to this legislation, licences to build offshore wind, wave and tidal farms in certain far shore geographical areas cannot be given without a prior governmental process where suitable areas are identified. This legal framework is very much inspired by similar legislation in the Norwegian petroleum sector.

As a follow up on the Ocean Energy Bill, a group of relevant governmental bodies has identified 15 areas that could be suitable for large scale offshore wind power. The selection of the 15 zones was carried out through a screening where technical opportunities were analyzed along with impacts on petroleum interests, shipping fisheries and a range of environmental interests.

AUTHORITIES INVOLVED
As decisions regarding opening zones for license applications are still under process, there is no authority responsible to manage the consenting process today. Consenting processes for onshore energy production governed by the Energy Act is managed

CONSENTING PROCESS
Applications for ocean energy production are not being processed in Norway at the moment because the Ministry will decide which zones are to be opened for license applications. These decisions are under process.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
The decisions regarding license applications for ocean energy projects are under process. According to this situation, this topic is not relevant at the moment.

LEGISLATION AND REGULATION
At the moment, the legislations and regulations for consenting process on ocean energy fall under the Ocean Energy Act of 2010.

CONSULTATION
The decisions regarding license applications for ocean energy projects are under process. According to this situation, this topic is not relevant at the moment.

GUIDANCE AND ADVICE
There as decisions regarding opening zones for license applications are still under process, there is no authority responsible to manage the consenting process today. Consenting processes for onshore energy production governed by the Energy Act is managed by the NVE.

TEST CENTERS
Runde Environmental Centre (REC), located on Runde Island on the Norwegian west coast facilitates preparations, licensing, deployment and monitoring of wave energy devices.