SUPPORTING POLICIES FOR OCEAN ENERGY
Norway has no special policy for ocean energy, but ocean energy is included in more general renewable energy policies and programmes.
In 2011, Norway and Sweden signed an agreement for a joint green certificate market. One certificate per MWh would, from 2012, be given to all new renewable energy generation in 15 years, independent of technology.
The price per certificate is driven by the market with a common target of 26.4 TWh by the end of 2020. The total compensation (el-spot + certificate) for the renewable producers is in the long term believed to be approximately €50-55/MWh. A total income in this range is almost certainly not enough for wave and tidal projects in the next decade. Instead, the governmental support programmes for research and development are intended to drive the development.
PUBLIC FUNDING PROGRAMMES
The Norwegian Energy Agency, Enova, offers capital grants for full-scale demonstration projects of ocean renewable production. While up to 50% of eligible costs can be covered, Enova’s funding measured in absolute figures is limited. In addition, Enova has a programme that supports demonstration of new energy technology, on the basis that the technology is applied in Norway.
Innovation Norway runs a programme supporting prototypes within “environmental friendly technology”. Ocean energy is included in this definition. Projects are supported with up to 45% of eligible costs.
The Research Council of Norway runs an energy research programme called ENERGIX. This programme supports R&D within all renewable energy technologies. For 2014, these three institutions had a combined budget of approximately €110 million.
MARINE SPATIAL PLANNING POLICY
The Ocean Energy Bill, which regulates offshore renewable energy production entered into force on 1 July 2010. According to this new legislation, licences to build offshore wind, wave and tidal farms in certain far shore geographical areas cannot be given without a prior governmental process where suitable areas are identified. This legal framework is very much inspired by similar legislation in the Norwegian petroleum sector.
As a follow up on the Ocean Energy Bill, a group of relevant governmental bodies has identified 15 areas that could be suitable for large scale offshore wind power. More detailed “strategic consequence assessments” were finalized in late 2012.
PERMITTING AND LICENSING PROCESS FOR OCEAN ENERGY PROJECTS
The licensing body NVE continues to prioritize small scale demonstration projects located near shore according to the existing Ocean Energy Bill. The licensing process is efficient and pragmatic since the demonstration projects are small in physical installations and operation time.tration of new energy technology.
Runde Environmental Centre (REC), located on Runde Island on the Norwegian west coast, can accommodate WEC plants for test and demonstration at several sites. One has a 3 km/0.5 MW sea cable to shore with grid connection. REC facilitates preparations, licensing, deployment and monitoring of the WECs, and works also on other forms of ocean energy, building national competence and capacity. The next WEC developer to deploy is Waves4power. Planning for a facility for testing of tidal energy devices at Brevik (Drammen) is in progress, in cooperation with REC.
Stadt Towing Tank (STT) was founded in 2007 to deliver test and research services to the marine industry. The main market for STT has been ship designers in the maritime cluster of north-western Norway, but projects related to renewable energy have also been tested.
RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
The research cluster in Trondheim, comprising NTNU and SINTEF/MARINTEK, is active in ocean energy research. Some of the activities are: technology screening and verification, control systems, mooring, marine structures, safety, optimal design of devices and load modelling. MARINTEK’s model tank is also used to test ocean energy devices. SINTEF/NTNU is a member of the EU MARINET research network.
Havkraft AS is a Norwegian technology company specialized in wave energy conversion. The company finalized their prototype testing of the Havkraft Wave Energy Converter (H-WEC) in real sea environment at Stad in Sogn og Fjordane, Norway, in 2015 with ground breaking results. With over 4500 controlled running hours with power production, surviving direct exposed hurricanes and documenting a “cut-in speed” on the converters at 2 kW/m, the patented technology has proven its ability to produce energy in a very broad spectrum of frequencies. The current stage is to implement the wave energy converters into offshore aquaculture, offshore wind installations and other applications worldwide. The company is headed by inventor Geir Arne Solheim, in close team with Dr. Karl Christian Strømsem, Edgar Kvernevik, Agnar Lyng, Roger Flølo and a range of highly skilled partners, including Stadyard, Kvernevik Engineering, SmartMotor, Marintek Sintef, Christian Michelsen Research, Ulvesund Elektro and more.
Deep River has developed a mobile «plug and go» power plant which utilises the kinetic energy in rivers as well as tidal and ocean currents. A 250 kW pilot is under river and tidal testing during 2015 and 2016. The Deep River concept is turbine and generator on standard, container or pallet based solutions. Standardizing of dimensions eases both transport and installation. The power plants are fully scalable, both in number and size of turbines. The power plants may be built with a number of different anchoring solutions, and is deliverable with buoyancy tanks.
Deep River aims at an international market, seizing on the opportunity for local power production, off-grid solution, energy storage and easy grid connection. The technology has been developed in close collaboration with Norwegian and international universities, as well as with international suppliers and developers.
Tidal Sails AS, an independent, privately held closed corporation based in Haugesund, Norway, develops a ground breaking technology to extract kinetic energy from slow moving water by combining the ancient principles of ocean sailing with state of the art alpine ropeway technology. Linearly moving sails have great extraction efficiency, thus dramatically reducing the cost of the electricity generation. Tidal Sails technology can be adapted to most river, ocean and tidal current locations, and is protected by several patents worldwide.
TideTec is a Norwegian tidal company focused on developing the most efficient and flexible turbine technology for tidal barrage/lagoon and flood protection systems. TideTec holds several patents for state of the art tidal turbines and construction of tidal power plants. TideTec have patented a turnable turbine to be used in tidal-water power plants.
The turbine enables efficient two-way production (ebb- and flood production) in tidal power plants. In addition the TideTec turbines can be used for both forward and reverse pumping which increases the power production and the flexibility of production. The technology is intended to be integrated to existing or planned transport infrastructure, such as road bridges.
Ocean Energy AS has designed a worldwide patented wave energy plant. The technology is based on the Swedish wave company Seabased AB, but Ocean Energy has developed and patented a “Storm Buoy”. The Storm Buoy can be submerged and withstand extreme waves. The solution is developed in cooperation with the leading environments at universities in Norway (NTNU), as well as the “Maritime Cluster” at Ulsteinvik, Sunnmøre in western Norway (www.ocean-energy.no). The project is supported by Innovation Norway and Ocean Energy plans to install a demonstration at Runde.
The company Flumill is planning to deploy its first commercial scale grid connected demonstration system at the marine test centre EMEC, in the UK. The system will be rated at 2 MW and produce up to 5 MW tidal energy at the EMEC location on Orkney Islands. The system will be deployed in 2017.
Langlee Wave Power The wave energy converter, named Langlee Robusto is a semi-submerged, floating steel structure anchored to the seabed with four chains. Wave energy is captured by large water wings that swing back and forth with the waves, converting the energy into electricity by generators with minimum loss. The electricity is connected to the onshore grid by a subsea cable.
Andritz Hydro Hammerfest
The company was founded in Norway in 1997 by the local utility company Hammerfest Energy and is currently owned by Andritz Hydro, Iberdrola and Hammerfest Energi. Andritz Hydro Hammerfest is among the leading tidal energy technology developers in the world and is now taking the step into commercial delivery. The Company has unrivalled commercial operation experience and has received Carbon Trust funding for the tidal turbine development. In December 2012 Andritz Hydro Hammerfest was awarded €20,7 million from NER300 for the proposed Sound of Islay project. Andritz Hydro is also part of the Meygen tidal energy project.