Country Reports

This year in Norway, we have seen the deployment of two prototypes. Deep River tested a 250 kW pilot in May, and the Tide Tec scaled prototype was deployed in Svelvik outside Drammen, in the southeast.

Wave power was mentioned in the white paper on energy policy (Meld. St. 25 2015-2016) published by the Government this year. In that short mention, the Government concedes that there is interest in testing wave power technology on the Norwegian coast.

 


SUPPORTING POLICIES FOR OCEAN ENERGY


NATIONAL STRATEGY
Norway has no special policy for ocean energy, but ocean energy is included in more general renewable energy policies and programmes.


REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
The Ocean Energy Bill, which regulates offshore renewable energy production entered into force on 1 July 2010. According to this new legislation, licences to build offshore wind, wave and tidal farms in certain far shore geographical areas cannot be given without a prior governmental process where suitable areas are identified. This legal framework is very much inspired by similar legislation in the Norwegian petroleum sector.

As a follow up to the Ocean Energy Bill, a group of relevant governmental bodies has identified 15 areas that could be suitable for large scale offshore wind power. More detailed “strategic consequence assessments” were finalized in late 2012. In the 2016 white paper on energy policy (Meld. St. 25 2015-2016) the areas pointed out by NVE are mentioned as potentially delivering 50 TWh, fully developed. No strategy for the realization of Norwegian demonstrators of floating offshore wind power and other forms of offshore renewable energy production has been presented by the Government, even though Parliament called for such a strategy to be presented in the white paper.


MARKET INCENTIVES
Norway and Sweden have been in a joint green certificate market, since 2011. Since 2012, one certificate per MWh has be given to all new renewable energy generation for 15 years, independent of technology. From year 2022, Norway will no longer participate in the scheme, while Sweden will increase their target build-out under the scheme with 18 TWh by 2030.


PUBLIC FUNDING PROGRAMMES

The Norwegian Energy Agency, Enova, offers capital grants for full scale demonstration projects of ocean renewable production. While up to 50% of eligible costs can be covered, Enova’s funding measured in absolute figures is limited. In addition, Enova has a programme that supports demonstration of new energy technology, on the basis that the technology is applied in Norway.

Innovation Norway runs a programme supporting prototypes within “environmental friendly technology”.  Ocean energy is included in this definition. Projects are supported with up to 45% of eligible costs.

The Research Council of Norway runs an energy research programme called ENERGIX. This programme supports R&D within all renewable energy technologies.

The research cluster in Trondheim, comprising NTNU and SINTEF/MARINTEK, is active in ocean energy research. Some of the activities are: technology screening and verification, control systems, mooring, marine structures, safety, optimal design of devices and load modelling. MARINTEK’s model tank is also used to test ocean energy devices. SINTEF/NTNU is a member of the EU MARINET research network.

Stadt Towing Tank (STT) was founded in 2007 to deliver test and research services to the marine industry. The main market for STT has been ship designers in the maritime cluster of north-western Norway, but projects related to renewable energy have also been tested. Among the renewable energy projects tested has been wave energy converters, wind turbine installation concepts, wind turbine foundation solutions and wind turbine service vessels.

Tide Tec AS, a Norway-based hydropower technology company, have displayed and tested the new and innovative turbine turning mechanism prototype in Svelvik, Norway, between August and November 2016. The prototype is intended to simulate a large-scale barrage or lagoon application for a low head hydro turbine. The turret has been tested for 6 weeks in a tidal stream environment. “The seawater tests give us proof of concept and show that a turning classic low head hydro turbine can be the most efficient tidal lagoon or barrage turbine”, says Joachim N. Amland, CTO at Tide Tec.

From late August, the prototype has been submerged for a test period of 6 weeks. “The testing show the robustness of the turning mechanism and the ability to keep the intended areas dry. In addition, we tested that the turret proves as a robust housing for a low head hydro turbine. The next steps will be to integrate a suited turbine into our turret, and upscale the technology”, says Joachim N. Amland.

OPEN SEA TEST SITES

Runde Environmental Centre (REC), located on Runde Island on the Norwegian west coast (http://www.rundecentre.no), can accommodate wave energy projects for test and demonstration at several sites. The site has a 3 km/0.5 MW sea cable to shore with grid connection. REC facilitates preparations, licensing, deployment and monitoring of the WECs, and works also on other forms of ocean energy, building national competence and capacity.

REC also hosts other subsea tests for anti-corrosion and anti-fouling. In 2016, a new bathymetric dataset, with 1x1 m resolution, was released by REC, for public use. This unique material is very useful when it comes to licensing and siting of OE devices in the area. The same applies to the wave forecasting model installed in co-operation with the Norwegian Met office.

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The Swedish developer Waves4power (www.waves4power.com) deployed their WavEl floating wave energy device by an offshore vessel in February, 2016. Held by three anchors, it survived the stormy period before the summer. Now being subject to upgrades, the plant will be re-deployed before the end of 2016.


OPERATIONAL PROJECTS

Havkraft AS is a Norwegian technology company specialized in wave energy conversion. The company finalized their prototype testing of the Havkraft Wave Energy Converter (H-WEC) in real sea environment at Stad in Sogn og Fjordane, Norway, in 2015 with ground breaking results. With over 4500 controlled running hours with power production, surviving direct exposed hurricanes and documenting a “cut-in speed” on the converters at 2 kW/m, the patented technology has proven its ability to produce energy in a very broad spectrum of frequencies. The current stage is to implement the wave energy converters into offshore aquaculture, offshore wind installations and other applications worldwide. The company is headed by inventor Geir Arne Solheim, in close team with a range of highly skilled partners


PLANNED DEPLOYMENTS

Deep River has developed a mobile «plug and go» power plant which utilises the kinetic energy in rivers as well as tidal and ocean currents. A 250 kW pilot was tested in May 2016. The Deep River concept is turbine and generator on standard, container or pallet based solutions. Standardizing dimensions eases both transport and installation. The power plants are fully scalable, both in number and size of turbines. The power plants may be built with a number of different anchoring solutions, and is deliverable with buoyancy tanks.

Deep River has also developed an easily deployable “Drop & Go” power plant, weighing 100 kg. This micro plant will be able to produce from 1 kW to 20 kW, and may be hooked up through a battery-pack. The Drop & Go system is ready for a commercial market as of 2016. Deep River aims at an international market, seizing on the opportunity for: local power production, off-grid solution, energy storage and easy grid connection. The technology has been developed in close collaboration with Norwegian and international universities, as well as with international suppliers and developers.

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  The Deep River prototype under testing in May 2016

 

Tidal Sails AS, an independent, privately held closed corporation based in Haugesund, Norway, develops a ground breaking technology to extract kinetic energy from slow moving water by combining the ancient principles of ocean sailing with state of the art alpine ropeway technology. Linearly moving sails have great extraction efficiency, thus dramatically reducing the cost of the electricity generation. Tidal Sails technology can be adapted to most river, ocean and tidal current locations, and is protected by several patents worldwide.

Ocean Energy AS has designed a worldwide patented wave energy plant. The technology is based on the Swedish wave company Seabased AB, but Ocean Energy has developed and patented a “Storm Buoy”. The Storm Buoy can be submerged and withstand extreme waves. The solution is developed in cooperation with universities in Norway (NTNU), as well as the “Maritime Cluster” at Ulsteinvik, Sunnmøre in Western Norway. The project is supported by Innovation Norway and Ocean Energy plans to install a demonstration at Runde (www.ocean-energy.no).

Flumill is planning to deploy its first commercial scale grid connected demonstration system at the marine test centre EMEC, in the UK. The system will be rated at 2 MW and produce up to 5 MW tidal energy at the EMEC location on Orkney Islands. The system will be deployed in 2017.

Andritz Hydro Hammerfest was founded in Norway in 1997 by the local utility company Hammerfest Energy and is currently owned by Andritz Hydro and Iberdrola. Andritz Hydro Hammerfest is among the leading tidal energy technology developers in the world and is now taking the step into commercial delivery: Andritz Hydro Hammerfest is currently developing and producing three MK1 turbines (1.5 MW) for installation at the MeyGen project in Pentland Firth.

Tide Tec consists of a turret or turning mechanism, intended to house a hydro turbine. The turbine can be turned 180 degrees to get optimal efficiency of a hydro turbine in a tidal power plant.

Most tidal power plants today generate power only in one direction. Projected plants with two-way production have sub-optimal production when the water flows “backwards” into the turbine.

The solution is aimed at the tidal range market with tidal barrages and lagoons. It can also be used for active flood protection applications, or integration into existing flood protection infrastructure, such as dikes. To show the feasibility of the Tide Tec system they are currently developing a model turbine together with TUM (Technical University in Munich).

Tide Tec are planning a new fundraising in the beginning of 2017 to fund engineering of a bigger scale pilot and further prove that the Tide Tec turret can house a 20 MW turbine with a runner diameter of 7.5 meters. In October Tide Tec tendered together with Aibel for prequalification for the Churchill Barrier Project on Orkney Island.

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  The Tidetec system

MARINE SPATIAL PLANNING POLICY
Offshore renewable energy is governed by the Ocean Energy Bill since 2010.

According to this legislation, licences to build offshore wind, wave and tidal farms in certain far shore geographical areas cannot be given without a prior governmental process where suitable areas are identified. This legal framework is very much inspired by similar legislation in the Norwegian petroleum sector.

As a follow up on the Ocean Energy Bill, a group of relevant governmental bodies has identified 15 areas that could be suitable for large scale offshore wind power. The selection of the 15 zones was carried out through a screening where technical opportunities were analyzed along with impacts on petroleum interests, shipping fisheries and a range of environmental interests.

AUTHORITIES INVOLVED
As decisions regarding opening zones for license applications are still under process, there is no authority responsible to manage the consenting process today. Consenting processes for onshore energy production governed by the Energy Act is managed

CONSENTING PROCESS
Applications for ocean energy production are not being processed in Norway at the moment because the Ministry will decide which zones are to be opened for license applications. These decisions are under process.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
The decisions regarding license applications for ocean energy projects are under process. According to this situation, this topic is not relevant at the moment.

LEGISLATION AND REGULATION
At the moment, the legislations and regulations for consenting process on ocean energy fall under the Ocean Energy Act of 2010.

CONSULTATION
The decisions regarding license applications for ocean energy projects are under process. According to this situation, this topic is not relevant at the moment.

GUIDANCE AND ADVICE
There as decisions regarding opening zones for license applications are still under process, there is no authority responsible to manage the consenting process today. Consenting processes for onshore energy production governed by the Energy Act is managed by the NVE.

TEST CENTERS
Runde Environmental Centre (REC), located on Runde Island on the Norwegian west coast facilitates preparations, licensing, deployment and monitoring of wave energy devices.