Country Reports

SUPPORTING POLICIES FOR OCEAN ENERGY 

In 2017, the State Oceanic Administration (SOA) released the “13th Five-Year Plan for Marine Renewable Energy (2016-2020)”, which sets out the key principles, specific actions and enablers needs to deliver upon China’s potential in marine renewable energy. By 2020, 4 marine renewable energy demonstration districts will be built; the total installed capacity of marine renewable energy will be more than 50 MW. The National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), the Ministry of Finance (MOF) and the National Energy Administration (NEA) released the “Regulations for the Trial Implementation of Renewable Energy Green Power Certificate” in February.

The SOA and MOF continue to fund the marine renewable energy utilization and development, a total budget of RMB 137 million was granted for 4 marine renewable energy projects. To date, China has committed approximately about RMB 1.25 billion to marine renewable energy RD&D since 2010.


NATIONAL STRATEGY
The “13th Five-Year Plan for Marine Renewable Energy (2016-2020)” was released by the SOA in December 2016. The Plan sets out the key principles, specific actions and enablers needs to deliver upon China’s potential in this area. The over-arching vision of the Plan is to

  1. Promote the demonstration and application of marine renewable energy,
  2. Focus on the breakthroughs in key technologies,
  3. Improve the technology levels of marine renewable energy,
  4. Strengthen the construction of public service platform, and
  5. Foster international cooperation in development of marine renewable energy”. By 2020, 4 marine renewable energy demonstration districts will be built; the total installed capacity of marine renewable energy will be more than 50 MW.

The “13th Five-Year Plan for Development of Oceanic Economy” was released by the NDRC and the SOA in May 2017. The Plan highlights:

  1. Improving offshore wind industrial layout,
  2. Encouraging construction of offshore (Deep sea) wind plant,
  3. Establishing the standards system,
  4. Advancing marine renewable energy demonstration projects,
  5. Developing key technology components,
  6. Accelerating the construction of island projects for multi-energy power supply based on marine renewable energy and the building of demonstration districts.

The National Energy Administration (NEA) released the “13th Five-Year Plan for Energy Technology Innovation” in December 2016. Accordingly, the “marine renewable energy key technologies utilization and demonstration project” is accepted into the 15 demonstration projects scope.

The NEA and the SOA released the “Measures for the development of offshore wind power” in December 2016. The implementation of the Measures will be led by the NEA and the SOA. The NEA is actively overseeing its implementation.


MARKET INCENTIVES
The NDRC, the Ministry of Finance (MOF) and NEA released the “Regulations for the Trial Implementation of Renewable Energy Green Power Certificate” (REGPC) in February 2017. The Regulations highlights “Establishing the Voluntary Subscription System for REGPC, Approving and Issuing the REGPC, Improving the Regulations for REGPC Purchase and Sale, and Strengthening management of the REGPC Systems”. Accordingly, the Regulations will be led by the NEA and the National Renewable Energy Information Management Centre (NREIMC). The NREIMC is in charge of issuing and managing REGPC through the Renewable Energy Project Management System (REPMS, NEA).


PUBLIC FUNDING PROGRAMMES
The SOA and MOF continue to fund the marine renewable energy utilization and development. The SOA reiterates the focus on stimulating industry-led projects for the development and deployment of marine renewable energy devices and systems through the support of the Special Funding Plan for Marine Renewable Energy (SFPMRE). In 2017, a total budget of RMB 137 million was granted for 4 marine renewable energy projects, including the 1 MW wave energy demonstration project, the tidal stream energy island demonstration project, the power supply system provided by wave energy for offshore devices, and the power supply system provided by wave energy for offshore cage.

As of September 2017, more than 111 marine renewable energy projects have been supported by SFPMRE, funding a total of RMB 1.25 billion, which fully played a guiding role of government finance in the aspects of support for national industrial structure adjustment, cultivation of strategic emerging industries, safeguard of national energy security and exploration of energy structure adjustment etc. In general, the SFPMRE has been promoting the significant improvement of marine renewable energy technologies in China.

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WAVE ENERGY
In 2017, supported by the SFPMRE, the Youlian shipyard (Shekou) Co. Ltd. and the Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion (GIEC) have been developing a power supply system provided by wave energy for offshore cage.

The floating cage will be powered by wave energy (60 kW) and solar energy (30 kW), and the cabins could also be used for workers accommodation or storage rooms. The system is suitable for different depth from 15 m to 100 m, and the system will be deployed for sea trial in 2019.
 

 
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OTEC
Supported by the SFPMRE, the National Ocean Technology Centre (NOTC) is developing a power system (200 W) of instrument based on OTEC, the maximum operating depth is 500 m. NOTC completed the installation and sea trial of the power system in 2017.
 
 

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OCEAN SALINITY ENERGY
Supported by the SFPMRE, the Ocean University of China (OUC) is developing an ocean salinity energy power system using pressure retarded osmosis technology. The OUC completed the design and testing of the system in 2016. The system achieves the power of 100 W with its total efficiency over 3%.
 

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OPEN SEA TEST SITES

NATIONAL SMALL SCALE TEST SITE IN WEIHAI, SHANDONG:
Developed by the NOTC, the test site completed the construction of the monitoring centre and the deployment of the ocean observation system in 2017.

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TIDAL CURRENT ENERGY TEST AND DEMONSTRATION SITE IN ZHOUSHAN, ZHEJIANG:

The test and demonstration project was developed by the China Three Gorges Corporation (CTGC) in June 2015, with the investment of RMB 135 million. Three test berths and a demonstration berth will be built in the site. The CTGC completed the purchase of a tidal current energy turbine by international bidding in 2017.

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WAVE ENERGY TEST AND DEMONSTRATION SITE IN WANSHAN, GUANGDONG:

The test and demonstration project was developed by the GIEC in July 2017. Three WEC devices will be deployed in the site in 2019, and one of them will be purchased by international procurement. The total installed capacity is over 1 MW. The investment is about RMB 150 million.

 

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OPERATIONAL PROJECTS

 

SHARP EAGLE WAVE ENERGY DEMONSTRATION PROJECT (GIEC):
Funded by the Special Fund for Strategic Technology Pilot of CAS, the Sharp Eagle (100 kW) was upgraded by the GIEC for better providing power to remote islands demonstration. The new hydraulic cylinders were installed, with higher corrosion resistant performance and reliability, and new WECs were installed in the platform, the total installed capacity of the WEC is over 200 kW. The upgraded Sharp Eagle-Wanshan was deployed near Wanshan Island for sea trial in March 2017. The amount of electricity accumulated was more than 50 MWh until December 2017.

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LHD Tidal Current Energy Demonstration Project:
Seven turbines will be installed on the platform; the total installed capacity will be 3400 kW. To date, 2 turbines were installed on the platform, and connected to the grid in August 2016. The amount of electricity accumulated was more than 450 MWh until December 2017. IO&M has been conducted by LHD since March 2017, and the turbines were deployed in August 2017. Funded by the SFPMRE, a new 300 kW horizontal-axis turbine is being developed by LHD and Blue Shark Power System (BSPS), and the new turbines will be installed and tested on the platform in July 2018.

 

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Zhairuoshan Tidal Energy Power Demonstration Station:
In 2015, the Zhejiang University (ZJU) installed a 120 kW tidal stream turbine near the Zhairuoshan Island (with their 60 kW turbine already deployed in 2014). To date, the total power generation has accumulated more than 30 MWh. In 2017, the ZJU was funded RMB 15 million by the SFPMRE to develop a new 600 kW turbine. In the future, the station can serve as a testing platform for tidal current energy turbines.
 

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PLANNED DEPLOYMENTS

 

Guo Dian United Power Co., Ltd (GDUP): GDUP is developing a 300 kW tidal stream turbine based on the turbine developed by the ZJU. GDUP has completed the commissioning test for the turbine, and will deploy the device near the Zhairuoshan Island in 2018.

Hangzhou Jianghe Hydro-Electric Science & Technology Co., Ltd (HJHEST): The HJHEST is developing a 300 kW tidal stream turbine based on a two-way turbine developed by the Northeast Normal University (NNU). HJHEST has completed the design and test for the turbine, and will deploy the device near the Zhairuoshan Island in 2018.

 

The 6th China Marine Renewable Energy Conference (CMREC), hosted by the NOTC and the Administrative Centre for Marine Renewable Energy (ACMRE), was held on 25 May 2017 in Zhuhai, Guangdong Province. The theme was “Innovation-driven development of MRE”.

More than 200 government organizations, universities, institutes, companies and stakeholders participated in the conference.

 
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MARINE SPATIAL PLANNING POLICY
Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) is used as a decision making tool: every project relating to the sea must conform to the Marine Functional Zoning.

In 2012, the State Council approved the National Marine Functional Zoning (2011-2020), and eleven planning of provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. China started the Marine Functional Zoning work in 1989.

Marine Functional Zoning is zoned in 8 categories: farming fishery area, port, shipping area, industrial and urban area, mineral and energy, touristic area, marine protected area, special use area and reservations.

Pre-selected areas for ocean energy development have been defined, under the category “mineral and energy”. Site selection planning should be consistent with the National Renewable Energy Development Planning, Marine Functional Zoning, Island Protection Planning and Marine Environmental Protection Planning.

AUTHORITIES INVOLVED
The authorities involved in the consenting process are the following:

• Financial funding authorities: National Development and Reform Commission, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Science and Technology and State Oceanic Administration (SOA). The involved authority depends on the financial funding sources of projects;

• Ministry of land and resources and related local department;

• Local electricity sector – approval of the grid-connection;

• Environmental Protection Departments – responsible for the EIA;

• Energy Management Departments – responsible for reviewing the energy assessment report.

CONSENTING PROCESS
The consenting process differs depending if it is a project funded by the government or with private funding. The examination and approval system applies only to the government investment project. The ratification system for enterprises do not use government funds to invest in the construction of major projects and restricted projects There are seven required approvals for developers:

• Initial approval by the Development and Reform Department of the project proposal;

• Examination and approval procedures of site selection and planning, pre-examination on land and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) by the Land Resources Departments and Environmental Protection Departments;

• Approval of the feasibility study report and project application report by the Development and Reform Department;

• Planning permission procedures approved by the Urban Planning Department;

• Formal land use approved by the Land Resources Department;

• Certificate of right to use sea areas from the SOA or local government of maritime administrative departments;

• For power production and grid connection a specific permitting procedure is required which involves the utility distribution grid operator.

There is no specific authority responsible to manage the ocean energy consenting process as a whole (“one stop shop” facility or entity). The approval departments depends on the funding sources for the project.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
An EIA must be submitted to the State Oceanic Administration and related Environmental Protection Departments.

The responsible for the decision on the requirement for an EIA are the Environmental Protection Departments. A “Marine Engineering Environmental Impact Assessment Technical Guideline” is available for developers, as well as related environmental protection standards. EIA baseline and post-deployment monitoring of the projects are not done.

LEGISLATION AND REGULATION
Regulations issued by the SOA for the consenting process of ocean energy projects:

• Marine Renewable Energy Special Funds Management Interim Measures;

• Marine Renewable Energy Special Fund Project Implementation Management Rules

Regulations and legislation adapted for ocean energy:

• National Medium and Long-term Science and Technology Development Plan (2006-2020);

• “Renewable Energy Law Amendment”;

• “Renewable Energy Tentative Management Measures for Electricity Generating Prices and Expenses Allocation”;

• “Interim Measures for Renewable Energy Electricity Price Additional Income Allocation”.

CONSULTATION
The formal mechanism of public participation consists in expert meetings to select the preferential developers.

There are two mandatory consultees:

• State Oceanic Administration (SOA) – responsible for the approval of ocean engineering;

• National Marine Consulting Center – technical review of EIA documents.

Informal consultation activities implemented during the licensing process can be on a sample survey form, panel discussion, feasibility study meeting, hearing, etc. and it shall include the representatives of citizens influenced by ocean engineering, legal persons or organizations.

GUIDANCE AND ADVICE
It is clear to applicants what permits are required, in what order and what information must be supplied at what time. Furthermore, there is guidance available to help developers during the process.