In the start of 2016, WaveStar declined the opportunity to pursue a H2020 grant for building a 500 kW prototype in Belgium. During 2016, WaveStar has reduced its activities and the iconic WaveStar from the Port of Hanstholm has been recycled. Floating Power Plant entered partnership with DP Energy in Ireland with the focus to develop wave energy sites in south Wales and north Scotland respectively.
SUPPORTING POLICIES FOR OCEAN ENERGY
The “Danish Partnership for Wave Energy” is a network stimulating innovation and collaboration on wave energy development in Denmark. The Danish Wave Energy developers met under this umbrella, in May and November 2016, to discuss and disseminate results from ongoing projects, either national or international. The Partnership is a result of the National strategy on wave energy proposed in 2012 and responsible for the Roadmaps for Wave Energy Development in 2015.
The Danish policies on climate change mitigation is driven partly by compliance with international climate obligations, and partly by achieving national targets in the energy sector, which is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions from Denmark. The regulatory framework for the Danish climate related policies is laid out in the Danish climate law. The law includes the following main messages:
- A council on climate change, independent and academically based, is to be established.
- An energy policy report is to be submitted by the Government to the Parliament every year.
- New national climate targets are to be established each year.
The Danish Council on Climate Change was established in 2015, and consists of distinguished academic experts in the fields of energy, transportation, agriculture, environmental protection, nature and economics. They are to publish their recommendations to the Government on the climate effort. Further, the experts are to contribute to the public discussion on the Danish climate efforts. The council is appointed for four year terms, and consists of a chairman and six experts. Read more on the work and recommendations of the Council on Climate Change (http://www.klimaradet.dk/en/frontpage).
The Minister of Energy, Utilities and Climate is obliged by the law to submit an annual energy policy report to the parliament. The report presents a status of current greenhouse gas emissions and Denmark’s outlook on compliance with international obligations.
Finally, the climate law obligates the Minister of Energy, Utilities and Climate to propose national climate targets at least every fifth year. The targets must have 10-year perspectives and the level of ambition needs to point towards the ambitions for Denmark to be independent of fossil fuels by 2050.
In Denmark, the incentives for Wave Power Developments are similar to Wind Energy. The Danish Partnership for Wave Energy has proposed methods to improve the Incentives for stimulating Wave Energy Development in Denmark. The incentives in other countries are explored by Floating Power Plant (FPP) which combines wave and wind on a single floating platform. FPP is moving on in partnership with DP Energy in Ireland, creating two new project companies, Dyfed and Katanes Floating Energy Ltd, developing sites in south Wales and north Scotland respectively. In 2015 Floating Power Plant Ltd, established offices in Scotland, to contribute to these developments, as well as building links to the local supply chain. Floating Power Plant P80 technology platform combines a 5-8 MW floating wind turbine with a 2-3,6 MW wave device.
PUBLIC FUNDING PROGRAMMES
The main source for public funding for Wave Energy is the energy technological development and demonstration programme (EUDP). The purpose of EUDP is to exploit and develop the Danish business potential within the energy sector, as well as reaching a number of political goals including supply security, a cleaner environment, and cost efficiency.
EUDP can provide grants for development and/or demonstration of all energy technologies contributing to reaching political goals for energy in the following areas:
- Biomass technology and systems for transportation and energy
- Wind and other renewable energy technologies (this is where Wave Energy is placed);
- Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies;
- Low energy buildings;
- Energy efficient solutions, including end-consumption and flexible energy consumption;
- Integrated energy systems (integration of technologies), including transportation of energy;
- More effective recovery of oil and gas;
- More effective and environmentally friendly production overall (electricity and gas), including CO2 storage.
EUDP has a yearly budget of approximately DKK 180 million for co-financing the development and demonstration of new and effective energy technologies. With a successful application of the programme, companies will receive:
- DKK 2.5-50 million for development and demonstration;
- A network of partners for development and commercialisation
- Technology and knowledge transfer.
The Wave Energy Research Group (WERG) at Aalborg University is coordinating two EUDP supported research projects:
- “Mooring Solutions for Large Wave Energy Converters” - is a R&D project to research common mooring solutions for large wave energy converters. It is a 3-year project funded by EUDP with €1 million initiated in 2015 and coordinated by Aalborg University. The objective is to design, test and develop cost efficient mooring solutions for large, slack moored, floating wave energy converters and to build national competences in design and modelling of mooring systems for WECs. Project partners are Tension Technology International, Chalmers University of Technology, and four wave energy developers, Floating Power Plant, Leancon, Wave Dragon and KNSwing.
Large WECs used as test cases in the development of mooring systems
- “Resource Assessment, Forecasts and WECs O&M strategies at DanWEC and beyond” - coordinated by Aalborg University, is a 3-year project initiated in 2015 and supported by the EUDP. The objective of the project is i) to define the long-term wave climate around Hanstholm area using measurements from three buoys off Hanstholm and by validating modelled against buoy-measured data; ii) to build competences in defining Operation and Maintenance strategies for wave energy converters (WECs) and other offshore activities in the study area.
At WERG, the final preparations of a new state-of-the-art wave laboratory are being made. The fully equipped laboratory will be capable of generating 3-D waves and currents, using 3-D active wave absorption in the wave basin and 2-D waves and currents in the flumes with 2-D active wave absorption.
The new building of the Department of Civil Engineering (left) and the new wave laboratory under preparation (right)
Wave Dragon participated in two EC supported projects, which were finalised in 2016: The “ACORN” project, where solutions to combined corrosion and marine biofouling were developed, http://www.acorn-project.eu/ - and “Maribe”, where Wave Dragon developed a combined wave energy and seaweed production plant aimed at deployment in the Irish Sea https://maribe.eu/
OPEN SEA TEST SITES
DanWEC Hanstholm is the Danish test site for wave energy – suited for testing prototypes. The test site is exposed to the waves from west with a fetch of about 600 km. The water depth in the dedicated area of 2 by 4 km is between 10 and 35 meter and distance to port 4 km. The wave resource is about 6 kW/m and the maximum significant wave height about 9 m, these conditions are currently being monitored and updated.
DanWEC Hansholm testsite
Nissum Bredning is a sheltered test site with a fetch of about 5 km to the west and 9 km in the direction SW.
The water depth is between 1 and 5 m, the resource is less than 1 kW/m and the maximum significant wave height about 1-2 m.
This test site is well suited for 1:5-10 scale experiments.
Nissum Bredning test site
|Wavepiston was re-Installed at DanWEC test site in Hanstholm during the summer of 2016.
||The German wave energy system NEMOS is being tested at
the sheltered DanWEC site in Nissum Bredning.
|Resen Waves are in the preparation stage for new rounds of sea testing in Nissum Bredning. Initial testing was completed in 2016 as shown on the picture
||Weptos plans the installation and testing of a prototype north of Brandsø, in Lillebælt, for a period of two years starting 2017.
CrestWing plan to install in Kattegat, during 2017. The inventor and developer of Crestwing, Henning Pilgaard, passed away in 2016. Henning Pilgaard was a driving force within wave energy development in Denmark.
MARINE SPATIAL PLANNING POLICY
Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) is used as a decision tool for offshore wind. Specific ocean energy space is not reserved.
The Danish Parliament and the various Governments of Denmark have in their Energy Agreements focus on offshore and nearshore spatial planning in the long-term goal for Danish energy policy. The latest Energy Agreement (Energy Bill) for the period 2012-2020 has specific focus on offshore wind turbine sea-spaces (Kriegers Fak and Horns Rev) as well as 6 dedicated offshore coastal areas.
Pre-selected areas for ocean energy have not been defined. However, historic test sites are recognized as potential areas by authorities.
Spatial planning is coordinated with other interests, at the sea territory. In Denmark the following core public authorities administer the maritime spatial planning:
• The Danish Coastal Authority (an agency under the Danish Ministry of the Environment) – responsible for the use of the coast (together with local Municipalities) and the seabed (e.g. power cables) in Danish territorial waters, including coastal protection and erosion abatement;
• The Danish Maritime Authority (a government agency under the Ministry of Business and Growth) – responsible for maritime safety and the use of the sea territory;
• The Danish Energy Agency (an agency under the Ministry of Climate, Energy and Building) – the conditions for offshore farms are laid down in the Promotion of Renewable Energy Act. It provides in its chapter 3 that the right to exploit energy from water and wind within the territorial waters and the exclusive economic zone (up to 200 nautical miles) around Denmark belongs to the Danish State;
• The Danish Environmental Agency (an agency under the Danish Ministry of Environment) – responsible for the EIA together with the Danish Energy Agency;
• The Ministry of Defense – responsible for the monitoring of maritime traffic and marine environment, rescue services and handling of pollution at sea.
Three licenses are required:
• License to carry out preliminary investigations – consent in 1-2 months. Investigations cover MetOcean, Seabed Bathymetry, EIA, Maritime Safety, decommissioning plans and public hearing and can take from few months to several years depending on the complexity on the area (e.g. EU Nature 2000 area, fishing and breeding bounds, coastal conditions, landscape and seaview conditions and values, etc.);
• License to establish the offshore site (only given if preliminary investigations show that the project is compatible with the relevant interests at sea);
• License to exploit ocean power for a given number of years and an approval for electricity production (given if conditions in license to establish the project are kept).
The consenting process last from few months for a single device at unproblematic sites to several years.
The Danish Energy Agency is the “one stop shop” facility for the ocean energy consenting process.
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
An Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is assessed on a case-by-case basis.
The assessment is based on an analysis on the following topics: technical solutions, maritime and environmental safety precautions, organizations planning process and consent to environmental risks, and involvement of and consent by relevant other interests at sea.
The Danish Energy Agency and the Danish Environmental Agency are both the entities responsible for the decision on whether an EIA is required. Monitoring of e.g. offshore wind turbine parks are made by the owners. Decommissioning plans must be presented at application and performed at the end of e.g. periodic ocean technologies test programs.
LEGISLATION AND REGULATION
The legislation falls under the renewable energy act:
• “Promotion of Renewable Energy Act”
• “Energy Agreement (Energy Bill) for the period 2012-2020”
Consultation is done at the stage of the preliminary investigations.
Local Municipality has to be consulted and public hearing meeting published and held. For the less visible ocean technologies and sites outside the public reach (surfing, diving, bathing, leisure sailing, landscape and seascapes values) the process can be simple and short. For visible technologies the process can take longer.
Informal consultation activities can be implemented during the licensing process by direct contact with the authorities.
GUIDANCE AND ADVICE
There is guidance available to help developers during the process through the energy authority and e.g. DanWEC.
Wave energy converters to be tested at DanWEC or at other locations in Danish waters will typically receive a temporary permit for deployment over the testing period - one or two years. Such permit can be obtained by filling an application to the Danish Energy Agency that will process the application.