Supporting Policies for Ocean Energy


Denmark has no national strategy on wave energy. Supported by EUDP and Energinet.DK a strategy for the development of wave power through industrial partnerships was presented in 2012 followed by Roadmaps in 2015.
Similar to concrete targets for deployment established in Canada, China, France, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, South Korea, Spain, the UK and in particular the EU policy, the Wave Power Partnership sets out three ways of promotion of wave energy in Denmark. The perspectives from the Wave Power Partnership are as follows:

  • SET A POLITICAL GOAL that 4 GW of wave energy should be included in the Danish energy mix by 2050, corresponding to 10% of the pan-European objective in the EU.
  • ACCELERATE the development of wave energy by integrating demonstration and development projects in the future energy islands as well as other offshore projects in Danish waters.
  • EAR-TAG SUPPORT for the development of wave energy and support the development of the Danish wave energy sector through education and research, proactive export policy as well as business promotion through, for example, the State's green investment funds and co-ownership.


Earmarked pools for the development of wind energy have been a great success. In a similar way, significant amounts of earmarked funding for wave energy under the State's Green Development and Demonstration Programmes such as (EUDP) can facilitate the development to avoid competition with well-established technologies for the same money. Although for now, this is not in the pipeline.
The North Sea has been identified as a strategic hot spot for offshore technology development in the EU Commission's offshore strategy. The future Energy Islands in Denmark provides a unique opportunity to integrate Wave Energy into the innovation environment around the islands for research, development and testing of wave energy solutions; in combination with future offshore wind farms and Power2X technologies.

Denmark can make use of the infrastructure and the knowledge, from wind energy and test the combination of wind + wave, which will be around the energy islands and thereby strengthen Danish competitiveness in offshore energy.


There are three national funding programmes that support ocean energy, including:

  • Energy Technology Development and Demonstration Program – EUDP
  • Innovation Fund Denmark

Each of these funding programmes supports a wide range of renewable and clean energy activities, and therefore ocean energy initiatives and proposals are competing with other technologies as wind energy for funding.

Consenting processes

Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) is used as a decision tool for offshore wind. Specific ocean energy space is not reserved.

The Danish Parliament and the various Governments of Denmark have in their Energy Agreements focus on offshore and nearshore spatial planning in the long-term goal for Danish energy policy. The latest Energy Agreement (Energy Bill) for the period 2012-2020 has specific focus on offshore wind turbine sea-spaces (Kriegers Fak and Horns Rev) as well as 6 dedicated offshore coastal areas.

Pre-selected areas for ocean energy have not been defined. However, historic test sites are recognized as potential areas by authorities.

Spatial planning is coordinated with other interests, at the sea territory. In Denmark the following core public authorities administer the maritime spatial planning:

• The Danish Coastal Authority (an agency under the Danish Ministry of the Environment) – responsible for the use of the coast (together with local Municipalities) and the seabed (e.g. power cables) in Danish territorial waters, including coastal protection and erosion abatement;
• The Danish Maritime Authority (a government agency under the Ministry of Business and Growth) – responsible for maritime safety and the use of the sea territory;
• The Danish Energy Agency (an agency under the Ministry of Climate, Energy and Building) – the conditions for offshore farms are laid down in the Promotion of Renewable Energy Act. It provides in its chapter 3 that the right to exploit energy from water and wind within the territorial waters and the exclusive economic zone (up to 200 nautical miles) around Denmark belongs to the Danish State;
• The Danish Environmental Agency (an agency under the Danish Ministry of Environment) – responsible for the EIA together with the Danish Energy Agency;
• The Ministry of Defense – responsible for the monitoring of maritime traffic and marine environment, rescue services and handling of pollution at sea.

Three licenses are required:

• License to carry out preliminary investigations – consent in 1-2 months. Investigations cover MetOcean, Seabed Bathymetry, EIA, Maritime Safety, decommissioning plans and public hearing and can take from few months to several years depending on the complexity on the area (e.g. EU Nature 2000 area, fishing and breeding bounds, coastal conditions, landscape and seaview conditions and values, etc.);
• License to establish the offshore site (only given if preliminary investigations show that the project is compatible with the relevant interests at sea);
• License to exploit ocean power for a given number of years and an approval for electricity production (given if conditions in license to establish the project are kept).

The consenting process last from few months for a single device at unproblematic sites to several years.

The Danish Energy Agency is the “one stop shop” facility for the ocean energy consenting process.

An Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is assessed on a case-by-case basis.

The assessment is based on an analysis on the following topics: technical solutions, maritime and environmental safety precautions, organizations planning process and consent to environmental risks, and involvement of and consent by relevant other interests at sea.

The Danish Energy Agency and the Danish Environmental Agency are both the entities responsible for the decision on whether an EIA is required. Monitoring of e.g. offshore wind turbine parks are made by the owners. Decommissioning plans must be presented at application and performed at the end of e.g. periodic ocean technologies test programs.

The legislation falls under the renewable energy act:

• “Promotion of Renewable Energy Act”
• “Energy Agreement (Energy Bill) for the period 2012-2020”

Consultation is done at the stage of the preliminary investigations.

Local Municipality has to be consulted and public hearing meeting published and held. For the less visible ocean technologies and sites outside the public reach (surfing, diving, bathing, leisure sailing, landscape and seascapes values) the process can be simple and short. For visible technologies the process can take longer.

Informal consultation activities can be implemented during the licensing process by direct contact with the authorities.

There is guidance available to help developers during the process through the energy authority and e.g. DanWEC.

Wave energy converters to be tested at DanWEC or at other locations in Danish waters will typically receive a temporary permit for deployment over the testing period - one or two years. Such permit can be obtained by filling an application to the Danish Energy Agency that will process the application.


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