Country Reports



The lack of Danish national action plans and targets has been discussed in the forum of the Danish Partnership for Wave Power. In 2012, the partnership developed the strategy for development of wave energy in Denmark.

During the fall of 2017, the partnership summarized this strategy in a five-page document and, on November 2017, a small delegation representing the chairman of the partnership for wave power and three wave energy developers presented their wishes in the Danish Parliament, which included five key points:

  1. Long-term support must be secured for existing test sites such as DanWEC, which was established with EUDP Greenlab Grant in 2012.
Delegation including Per Resen (Resen Waves), Kim Nielsen (Chairman of the Partnership), Michael Henriksen (Wave Piston), Anders Køhler (Floating Power Plant) at the Danish Parliament.
  1. “ForskVE” model should be revived on relevant projects, so the funding and support is conditional on demonstrating delivery of an agreed electricity production depending on wave conditions, thus creating a focus on costs, performance and operational safety.
  2. To ensure and increase the rate of public co-financing up to 70% for the cost of building the demonstration plants of the most promising competing wave power concepts.
  3. The introduction of additional tariffs (€ 300/MWh) for wave power (time- and production limited), which can stimulate investors to invest in the most promising concepts, which then can compete on the ability to produce energy and earn money to expand business.
  4. Ocean space planning in Denmark should include wave power plants to ensure that future electrical infrastructure development in the North Sea is able to benefit both wind and wave power, with due consideration of environmental and societal aspects.

There are two national funding programmes under which ocean energy developers can seek funding for R&D and system development; these are EUDP and Innovation Fund Denmark, both invest in new knowledge and technology creating growth and employment in Denmark.


Aalborg University (AAU) Wave Energy Group, headed by Arthur Pecher and Jens Peter Kofoed, has published a new open access book entitled Handbook of Ocean Wave Energy.

It includes contributions from a range of experts dealing with topics like Cost of Energy, Resources, WEC hydrodynamics, Moorings, PTOs, Experimental Testing and Numerical Modelling.

The book can be downloaded from the link:

There are a number of R&D projects on-going, one is the co-operative project on “Mooring Solutions for Large Wave Energy Converters” led by AAU in co-operation with Chalmers University, and Tension Technology International and the developers of the WECs Floating Power Plant (FPP), Wave Dragon (WD), Leancon and KNSwing. The objectives of the project are to design, test and develop cost efficient mooring solutions for large, slack moored, floating wave energy converters (WECs), and to build national competences in design and modelling of mooring systems for WECs.

The second project concerns “Resource Assessment, Forecasts and WECs O&M strategies at DanWEC”, also led by AAU with the partners DHI and DanWEC. The project is dealing with a detailed assessment of the Wave Energy Resource of DanWEC, and a tool able to forecast the wave conditions is being developed (AAU, DanWEC, DHI).The new Wave Basin at AAU is included as an infrastructure under the EU supported MarRINET2 programme. So far three MaRINET2 projects have been allocated to AAU.

AAU further leads the project “New Material for Wave Energy Substructures”, a project supported by the Energiteknologiske Udviklings- og Demonstrationsprogram (EUDP). The project runs from 2016 to 2020 (

The ultimate objective is to develop a new kind of material that will allow protecting the sub-structure of wave energy converters from rust and scour in a completely innovative way. The material proposed for investigation is called Biorock. The novel technology uses electrolysis of seawater to precipitate calcium and magnesium minerals to ‘grow’ a crystalline coating over artificial structures, typically expanded steel meshes of any desired shape and size. At the present stage, after 1 year of laboratory tests at the Chemical Engineering Department, AAU Esbjerg, we are about to deploy two small models in Nissum Bredning and Hanstholm, to monitor the mineral accretion in cold waters.

Floating Power Plant A/S (FPP) develops floating wind platforms that integrate wave power. FPP has successfully tested a grid connected ½ scale prototype over 2 years and is currently developing the technology for 3 commercial projects in Scotland, Wales and Ireland. The projects are led by project developer DP Energy. Floating Power Plant has been able to access the test facility Oceanide in France, via MaRINET2, to perform tests of sections of their wave energy absorbers in scale 1:30.

KNSwing wave energy converter investigates the use of concrete as construction material. The WEC is inspired by early UK concepts from 1978 where similar systems were investigated known as the NEL I-beam Attenuator shaped as a ship with a central buoyancy volume and along each side is placed of Oscillating Water Columns (OWC)

  75975-dk-3.jpgFloating Power Plant

Floating Power Plant testing a section of its wave energy model


chambers, absorbing the wave energy converted via air-turbines. A 3-meter-long experimental model (the picture) has been tested under the MaRINET programme 2013 and 2015. The results have been compared to theory developed in co-operation with DTU and Development v. Ramboll and Kim Nielsen.


DanWEC is the Danish site in the North Sea for testing Wave Energy Converters. It is located close to  Hanstholm Habour as shown on the image below.

The water depth is between 15 – 30 meters, and the wave resource about 7 kW/m with max Hs up to 8 meters. The site is marked and equipped with two DataWell buoys measuring wave heights as well as current.



Directional measurements of waves and currents at the DanWEC Hanstholm site

DanWEC plans to establish grid connections in order to facilitate the continued development and testing of WECs and these plans were presented to the Danish Energy Agency in November 2017, in alignment with the strategy of the Partnership for Wave Power in Denmark.




Resen Waves provide small scale 300W commercial off the shelf wave energy buoys for providing electric power and real time data communication for instruments in the oceans, as a plug and play solution. The buoys can be installed in water depths up to 200 m as standard and are designed for full ocean exposure. Specials on request for bigger water depth. The technology is characterized by high efficiency, low weight and direct mechanical to electric drive with few moving parts.

Later the buoys could be scaled to 250kW to 500kW per buoy.

Resen Waves


WavePiston has formed a consortium with Vryhof Anchors, Fiellberg and the Technical University of Denmark, and have been testing a ½ scale prototype in the North Sea at the DanWEC test site outside Hanstholm, since 2015.

The technology is a surface attenuator using the wave surge to capture the wave energy. The structure is a long steel wire rope with slack mooring in each end. On the steel wire rope many energy collectors are mounted like pearls on a string each converting the wave energy.


WEPTOS was tested in open sea in Lillebælt in 2017. It is a V‐shaped structure that absorbs the wave energy through a line of rotors (Salter Ducks), on each arm - each transmits energy to a generator. This gives a relatively smooth energy generation, suited for known generator solutions.

WEPTOS completed test in small scale in AAU 2008, as well as large scale model tests in Spain 2011 and in Edinburg 2014.





Crestwing has been tested in the hydraulic laboratories in AAU (2008) and DHI (2010). Since 2011 Crestwing has started testing in real sea conditions in scale 1:5 in Frederikshavn. Crestwing is a “hinged raft” composed of two pontoons connected with hinges. The rotation around the hinge activates a power take-off system developed by Crestwing and placed dry in a large engine room with easy access. The plant is not visible from land even in park formation due to the low freeboard of the units.

Crestwing plans to test a larger prototype in 2018


Wave Dragon was tested in Nissum Bredning in 2003 - 09. Wave Dragon is a floating device equipped with several hydro turbines. The installed power range is 1.5 to 12 MW. Wave Dragon has recently performed feasibility studies for combined wave energy and seaweed production plants at more deployment sites than the original study for the Irish Sea,, multi-purpose WD platforms equipped with environmental monitoring systems and combined WD wave-wind platforms with possible double yearly power production at deployment sites with good wind resources, leading to substantial lower cost of energy.

Wave Dragon is investigating tests in Wales in the UK


The Exowave WEC element, also known as oscillating wave surge converter, extracts the kinetic energy available in the wave induced orbital water particles motion through a bottom-hinged flap. The device is intended to be installed in waters up to 40 meters depth, allowing for boats to sail above the converter itself and ensuring zero visual impact.

Exowave is planning on continued testing in 2018



During 2017 organised two WEIBs (Wave Energy Innovation Business), which typically includes a workshop followed by a B2B (Business to Business) event. The first was held in March 2017 under the premises of Ramboll, in Copenhagen, with the invited guest speaker Pablo Ruiz-Minguela, from Tecnalia/Spain, who presented the on-going EU Opera project. The second Partnership was Offshore B2B 2017, which included a united Offshore Wind to Business OWIB, Oil and Gas International Business OGIB and Wave Energy Innovation Business WEIB for two days, dedicated to networking, new knowledge and new opportunities across the offshore industry. The meeting took place in November in Esbjerg. At this meeting the new webpage for the partnership was launched.




Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) is used as a decision tool for offshore wind. Specific ocean energy space is not reserved.

The Danish Parliament and the various Governments of Denmark have in their Energy Agreements focus on offshore and nearshore spatial planning in the long-term goal for Danish energy policy. The latest Energy Agreement (Energy Bill) for the period 2012-2020 has specific focus on offshore wind turbine sea-spaces (Kriegers Fak and Horns Rev) as well as 6 dedicated offshore coastal areas.

Pre-selected areas for ocean energy have not been defined. However, historic test sites are recognized as potential areas by authorities.

Spatial planning is coordinated with other interests, at the sea territory. In Denmark the following core public authorities administer the maritime spatial planning:

• The Danish Coastal Authority (an agency under the Danish Ministry of the Environment) – responsible for the use of the coast (together with local Municipalities) and the seabed (e.g. power cables) in Danish territorial waters, including coastal protection and erosion abatement;
• The Danish Maritime Authority (a government agency under the Ministry of Business and Growth) – responsible for maritime safety and the use of the sea territory;
• The Danish Energy Agency (an agency under the Ministry of Climate, Energy and Building) – the conditions for offshore farms are laid down in the Promotion of Renewable Energy Act. It provides in its chapter 3 that the right to exploit energy from water and wind within the territorial waters and the exclusive economic zone (up to 200 nautical miles) around Denmark belongs to the Danish State;
• The Danish Environmental Agency (an agency under the Danish Ministry of Environment) – responsible for the EIA together with the Danish Energy Agency;
• The Ministry of Defense – responsible for the monitoring of maritime traffic and marine environment, rescue services and handling of pollution at sea.

Three licenses are required:

• License to carry out preliminary investigations – consent in 1-2 months. Investigations cover MetOcean, Seabed Bathymetry, EIA, Maritime Safety, decommissioning plans and public hearing and can take from few months to several years depending on the complexity on the area (e.g. EU Nature 2000 area, fishing and breeding bounds, coastal conditions, landscape and seaview conditions and values, etc.);
• License to establish the offshore site (only given if preliminary investigations show that the project is compatible with the relevant interests at sea);
• License to exploit ocean power for a given number of years and an approval for electricity production (given if conditions in license to establish the project are kept).

The consenting process last from few months for a single device at unproblematic sites to several years.

The Danish Energy Agency is the “one stop shop” facility for the ocean energy consenting process.

An Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is assessed on a case-by-case basis.

The assessment is based on an analysis on the following topics: technical solutions, maritime and environmental safety precautions, organizations planning process and consent to environmental risks, and involvement of and consent by relevant other interests at sea.

The Danish Energy Agency and the Danish Environmental Agency are both the entities responsible for the decision on whether an EIA is required. Monitoring of e.g. offshore wind turbine parks are made by the owners. Decommissioning plans must be presented at application and performed at the end of e.g. periodic ocean technologies test programs.

The legislation falls under the renewable energy act:

• “Promotion of Renewable Energy Act”
• “Energy Agreement (Energy Bill) for the period 2012-2020”

Consultation is done at the stage of the preliminary investigations.

Local Municipality has to be consulted and public hearing meeting published and held. For the less visible ocean technologies and sites outside the public reach (surfing, diving, bathing, leisure sailing, landscape and seascapes values) the process can be simple and short. For visible technologies the process can take longer.

Informal consultation activities can be implemented during the licensing process by direct contact with the authorities.

There is guidance available to help developers during the process through the energy authority and e.g. DanWEC.

Wave energy converters to be tested at DanWEC or at other locations in Danish waters will typically receive a temporary permit for deployment over the testing period - one or two years. Such permit can be obtained by filling an application to the Danish Energy Agency that will process the application.