Country Reports

Ireland is open for business and is actively committed to harnessing its abundant wave, tidal and offshore wind energy resources while developing an indigenous ocean energy industry in the process. The publication of the Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan in 2014, and its ongoing implementation through the Offshore Renewable Energy Steering Group, has had the benefit of facilitating a genuinely collaborative environment in this area. All relevant agencies and Government departments are working together to support this burgeoning sector and offering one single gateway for information and access to the ocean energy industry in Ireland. Ireland has a unique ladder of development and test site infrastructure, which was significantly enhanced in 2015. The importance of supporting technology developers while also investing in academic research has been well recognised, and the past year has seen tangible progress in both areas with some flagship projects already underway.

 

SUPPORTING POLICIES FOR OCEAN ENERGY


NATIONAL STRATEGY


The Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan (OREDP) The Irish Government’s Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources (DCENR) published the Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan (OREDP) in February 2014 (http://www.dcenr.gov.ie/energy/en-ie/Renewable-Energy/Pages/OREDP-Landing-Page.aspx). The OREDP highlights the potential opportunities for the country in relation to marine energy at low, medium and high levels of development, as derived from the findings of the Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Plan carried out prior to publication. The OREDP, as a policy document, sets out the key principles, specific actions and enablers needed to deliver upon Ireland’s significant potential in this area. Accordingly, the OREDP is seen as providing a framework for the development of this sector.

The overarching vision of the Plan is “Our offshore renewable energy resource contributing to our economic development and sustainable growth, generating jobs for our citizens, supported by coherent policy, planning and regulation, and managed in an integrated manner” (DCENR, 2014). The Plan is divided into two parts. The first part deals with the opportunities, policy context and next steps, including 10 key enabling actions for the development of the sector. The second part focuses on the Strategic Environmental and Appropriate Assessment of the Plan. The implementation of the OREDP will be led by the DCENR and the Offshore Renewable Energy Steering Group (ORESG) is actively overseeing its implementation. The Steering Group consists of the main Government departments and agencies with roles and responsibilities that relate to energy and the marine environment, developers and broader interest and user groups when necessary. The Group reports directly to the Minister and the Plan will be reviewed before the end of 2017.

The work of the ORESG, and hence the implementation of the OREDP is organised according to three work streams: Environment, Infrastructure and Job Creation. The Job Creation working group has responsibility across several actions, including identifying additional exchequer support requirements, supply chain development and communicating the message that ‘Ireland is Open for Business’. Under the Environment work stream, the group ensures the needs of the marine energy industry are reflected in the on-going reform of the foreshore and marine consenting process. The actions deriving from the SEA and AA of the OREDP will also be taken forward under this work stream to ensure that future marine energy development takes place in an environmentally sustainable manner. The Infrastructure working group concentrates on supporting and delivering objectives of other policies such as the National Ports Policy and Grid 25 so as to expedite integrated infrastructure development which will facilitate the offshore renewable energy sector.

 

Ireland’s Transition to a Low Carbon Energy Future 2015 - 2030
The White Paper ‘Ireland’s Transition to a Low Carbon Energy Future 2015-2030’, published by DCENR in 2015, is a complete update on Ireland’s wider energy policy. This paper sets out a framework to guide policy and the actions that Government intends to take in the energy sector from now up to 2030, while taking European and International climate change objectives and agreements, as well as Irish social, economic and employment priorities, into account. The White Paper anticipates that ocean energy will play a part in Ireland’s energy transition in the medium to long term and reiterates the OREDP’s status as the guiding framework for developing the sector.


Ocean Energy Portal
The Ocean Energy Portal was launched in November 2014, and has been significantly updated and enhanced throughout 2015. The portal acts as a ‘sign-post’ to guide interested parties, internal and from abroad, through the supports available in Ireland for the development of the marine renewable energy sector. All information is aligned under six axes of activity which provide access to marine data, maps, tools, funding and information relevant to renewable energy site assessment, development and management. Since its launch, the Portal has become the “first stop shop” to which all developers can engage with relevant support sectors in Ireland and from where they can obtain the most relevant and up to date information (www.oceanenergyireland.ie)


MARKET INCENTIVES
Under the Job Creation work stream of the OREDP, one of the key actions is the introduction of Initial Market Support Tariff for Ocean Energy. It is envisaged that this will be equivalent to €260/MWh and limited to 30MW for ocean (wave and tidal), focusing on pre-commercial trials and demonstration. In July 2016, DCENR published a Technology Review Consultation, the first stage in a review of renewable electricity support schemes. The objective of this process is, where a clear need is demonstrated, to develop a new support scheme for renewable electricity to be available in Ireland from 2016 onwards, to support the delivery of Government policy, while taking account of the broader emerging policy context, such as the Energy Policy White Paper, the transition to the target market, the EU 2030 Climate and Energy Framework and State Aid guidelines, the Energy Union package and the European Energy Security Strategy. The development of the wave and tidal market support tariff is included as part of this process.


PUBLIC FUNDING PROGRAMMES


SEAI Prototype Development Fund
The OREDP reiterates the focus on stimulating industry-led projects for the development and deployment of ocean energy devices and systems through the support of the Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland’s (SEAI) Prototype Development Fund. The objectives of this programme are to accelerate and enhance support for the research, development, testing and deployment of wave and tidal energy devices. Sixty five technology projects have received support from SEAI since the programme was launched in 2009.

Fifteen new projects were awarded grants totalling €4.3 million through the Prototype Development Fund in 2015. Successful applicants include Ocean Energy Ltd., who secured €2.3 million to design and build a full scale version of their OE Buoy wave energy converter which will be deployed and tested at the US Navy Wave Energy Test Site in Hawaii. Other examples include SeaPower, who will receive over €1 million to test their wave energy converter at quarter scale in Galway Bay, while GKinetic Energy were awarded almost €200,000 to conduct towing tests of their tidal turbine system in Limerick Docks. Other projects include physical tank testing of early stage wave energy convertor concepts and feasibility studies of potential deployment sites.


OCEANERA-NET
The ERA-NET scheme is an innovative component of the European Union’s Framework Programme, which supports cooperation of national/regional research funding programmes to strengthen the European Research Area (ERA). SEAI is a participant in the OCEANERA-NET, along with 16 funding Agencies from 9 European countries. The first OCEANERA_NET joint call commenced in late 2014, and a number of Irish partners were involved in successful project proposals. A second joint call was launched in February 2016.


SEA TEST SITES
Ireland has a unique ladder of development and test site infrastructure, allowing developers to move from laboratory test facilities at the Lir National Ocean Test facility in Cork, to a quarter scale test bed in Galway Bay and to a full test facility at the Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS) near Belmullet, Co. Mayo. Significant steps were taken to further develop these facilities in 2015.


Galway Bay Ocean Energy Test Site 
Ireland’s ¼ scale ocean energy test site is located within the Galway Bay Marine and Renewable Energy Test Site and is situated 1.5km offshore in water depths ranging from 20m – 23m. The site has provided test and validation facilities for a number of wave energy devices and components to date.

2015 saw the installation of a subsea observatory at the site, with a four kilometre cable providing a physical link to the shore at Spiddal, Co. Galway. The ocean observatory enables the use of cameras, probes and sensors to permit continuous and remote live underwater monitoring. The cable supplies power to the site and allows unlimited data transfer from the site for researchers testing innovative marine technology including renewable ocean energy devices. The installation of this infrastructure was the result of the combined efforts of the Marine Institute, SEAI, the Commissioners of Irish Lights, Smartbay Ireland and the Marine Renewable Energy Ireland (MaREI) Centre. The project was part-funded under the Science Foundation Ireland (SFI) “Research Infrastructure Call” in 2012. Separately, SEAI announced a Memorandum of Understanding with Apple in November 2015 to promote the development of ocean energy in Ireland. Apple has committed a €1 million fund that will help developers who receive a SEAI grant to test their ocean energy prototypes in the Galway Bay Ocean Energy Test Site.


Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS)
The Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS) is being developed by SEAI to facilitate testing of full scale wave energy converters in an open and energetic ocean environment. AMETS will be located off Annagh Head, west of Belmullet in County Mayo and will be connected to the national grid. It is currently envisaged that the site will provide two separate test locations at water depths of 50m and 100m to allow for a range of devices to be tested, though the potential to facilitate testing at shallower depths or the testing of other technologies such as floating wind is being investigated.

The infrastructure to support testing at AMETS continues to be advanced, and it is expected that planning permission for the onshore aspects of the site, including the electrical substation, will be submitted early 2016. Crucially, the Foreshore Lease for AMETS was signed by the Minister of Environment Communities and Local Government in late 2015. This was the culmination of a detailed assessment and approval process and provides the legal basis for operating the test site.

 


GOVERNMENT FUNDED R&D


Marine Renewable Energy Ireland (MaREI)
MaREI is a centre of excellence for marine renewable energy, supported by Science Foundation Ireland. The Centre combines the expertise of a wide range of research groups and industry partners, with the shared mission of solving the main scientific, technical and socio-economic challenges across the marine and renewable energy spaces. In addition to facilitating fundamental research activities, the MaREI research programme is closely aligned to the requirements of its industry partners and the marine and renewable energy sectors as a whole, providing innovative solutions that reduce the time to market, and reduce costs to a competitive level.

MaREI’s research capabilities draw upon the excellent track record of well-established marine and renewable energy-based research groups across each of its academic partners, covering a wide range of cross-cutting topics, such as device design and testing, novel materials, offshore operations, coastal and marine management, marine robotics, observation and monitoring, energy storage, aquaculture and green gas. The research team comprises internationally recognised experts in these fields from UCC, NUIG, UL, MU, UCD, and CIT, who have complementary research backgrounds key to providing the underpinning research necessary for Ireland to achieve commercially successful marine and renewable energy industries.

By the end of 2015, MaREI had approximately 90 researchers in place working on a variety of fundamental and applied research projects across its six academic partner institutions. These included targeted projects with 45 industry partners, comprising a range of small and medium enterprises across the marine and renewable energy spaces, to the value of €5 million.


Beaufort Building and Lir NOTF
Housing the headquarters of MaREI, the new Beaufort Building at Ringaskiddy, Cork, was officially opened by Taoiseach Enda Kenny during July 2015, representing a major extension of UCC’s Environmental Research Institute (ERI). The Building covers some 4700m2 on five floors and has provision for 135 researchers and support staff in offices and across a suite of state-of-the-art test tanks and dedicated workshops. It also includes Lir-NOTF, Ireland’s National Ocean Test Facility, comprising a 2,600m2 tank-hall, which will house 4 different wave tanks and a suite of electrical test infrastructure.

MaREI also secured over €4 million in additional funding from the SFI Infrastructure Fund in late 2015, which will allow the addition of an ‘Open Ocean Emulator’ at Lir-NOTF to accurately replicate real ocean wave conditions, and the development of an MRE Remotely Operated Vehicle by Prof. Dan Toal to address issues experienced by conventional equipment in challenging high-energy offshore conditions.


PARTICIPATION IN COLLABORATIVE INTERNATIONAL PROJECTS

Ocean Energy Forum – The Ocean Energy Forum has been created by the European Commission DG MARE to bring together stakeholders to develop a shared understanding of the problems faced by the Ocean Energy sector and to collectively devise workable solutions. Irish representatives have been active in developing the draft Strategic Roadmap which sets out the industry’s six-point plan for bringing ocean energy technologies to the marketplace.

The European Commissioner for Fisheries and Maritime Affairs, Karmenu Vella, convened a high level session of the Ocean Energy Forum in Dublin in October 2015 to discuss the first conclusions of the draft Strategic Roadmap. This event was attended by several ministers from participating member states, including Ireland’s Minister for Communications Energy and Natural Resources Alex White.

The Ocean Energy Forum event was held to coincide with the annual Ocean Energy Europe Conference & Exhibition which took place in Croke Park Dublin and was sponsored by SEAI.


IEC TC114 - Ireland has a mirror committee (TC18) and contributes with experts to the International Electrotechnical Commission’s TC114 in the development of standards and guidelines for the ocean energy industry. Ireland has expert participation in the majority of the Work Programme. The TC114 International Plenary Meeting and related PT Meetings were held in Dublin Castle in April 2015.

Competition on Hydrodynamic Modelling of a Rigid Body - Launched by Prof. John Ringwood and Prof. Frederic Dias of MaREI, this competition sought to evaluate different ways to model and simulate a device. Six teams from Korea, Canada, USA, Ireland and Norway submitted entries to the competition, which was won by a team from NREL in the USA. The results were presented at two special sessions of the ASME 34th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Artic Engineering in Canada in June.

International Smart Ocean Graduate Education Initiative - Ireland has a graduate programme co-funded by members of the SmartOcean group, which has a mix of Irish and International entities. The first round of PhDs started in 2013.


EU PROJECTS
To date, MaREI has secured a total of over €6 million in EU funding, and has implemented academic collaborations with 67 other institutions across 19 countries, resulting in 149 journal publications and 133 conference proceedings. Ocean energy projects that MaREI researchers are participating in include:

  • FloTEC (Floating Tidal Energy Commercialisation project) - The FloTEC project will demonstrate the potential for floating tidal stream turbines to provide low cost, high value energy to the European grid mix. The project will entail the construction of a turbine device that will be deployed alongside an existing floating tidal array which will serve as a demonstration platform for commercially viable tidal stream energy.

    The FloTEC consortium brings together world leaders in tidal energy with partners that cover all parts of the supply chain, including end users.
     
  • INNOWAVE (Maximising the technical and economic performance of real wave energy devices)INNOWAVE’s focus is on the wave energy sector andthe project provides an innovative training programme that integrates academic and industrial contributions. The INNOWAVE programme comprises formal and informal training activities with a rich set of industryacademic research projects, which will provide access to real world tank and ocean testing, wave-energy device deployment and implementation of new research results in state-of-the-art wave energy technology.
     
  • MARIBE (Maximising the technical and economic performance of real wave energy devices) - MARIBE aims to identify opportunities for Blue Growth sectors to combine with other sectors via multi-use of space or in multi-use platforms (MUPs) and assist in the development of the most promising projects within these combinations. The analysis undertaken by MARIBE partners of key technical and non-technical challenges facing offshore projects will help determine how well placed offshore projects are to progress to pilot and commercial levels. MARIBE partners also incorporate input from the project’s extensive stakeholder network to inform the project approach and activities.
     
  • OPERA (Open Sea Operating Experience to Reduce Wave Energy Cost) - The primary objective of OPERA is to gather open sea operating experience to reduce the cost of wave energy. A key challenge to realising the potential of Europe’s wave energy resource relates to data access; the wave energy R&D community does not always have access to open sea operating test data. OPERA will remove this roadblock by collecting and sharing two years of open sea operating data of a floating oscillating water column wave energy converter.

    Documenting and sharing this open sea experience will induce a step change in terms of knowledge of risk and uncertainties, costs and societal and environmental impacts of wave energy.
     
  • RICORE (Risk Based Consenting of Offshore Renewable Energy Projects) - Consenting of offshore renewable energy is often cited as a critical nontechnical barrier to the development of the sector. The RICORE project aims to establish a risk based approach to the consenting process for offshore renewables. Current legal frameworks as well as practices, methodologies and implementation of pre consent surveys, post consent and post deployment monitoring are examined with a view to developing best practices for overcoming barriers and ensuring compliance. RICORE partners work with relevant stakeholders including regulators, industry and EIA practitioners, through a series of expert workshops and use this engagement to guide the project’s activities.

 


OPERATIONAL PROJECTS


Technology from Ideas (TfI) - Technology from Ideas successfully installed and tested their elastomeric mooring tethers on a Mobilis 8000 data buoy at the Galway Bay Quarter Scale Test Site, building on previous trials at the site. The TfI system is designed to substantially reduce the loads experienced by floating devices during extreme weather events. The tethers consist of a soft elastomeric rubber component which stretches in normal sea states and stiffer thermoplastic spring components, which compress at the higher storm loads. The project demonstrated that the springs engage as expected and that the polymer mooring tethers can protect the data buoy as designed from 100 year storm scenarios.

GKinetic - GKinetic Ltd. is a Co. Limerick based developer of a submerged tidal energy device composing of twin, multi bladed, vertical axis turbines mounted either side of a tear drop shaped ‘bluff body’ that will be moored to the seabed. The concept has undergone staged development, in line with industry best practice. Previous testing has been undertaken at NUI Galway, the IFREMER flow tank facility at Boulonge-Dur-Mer in France and numerical modelling for design optimisation. GKinetic conducted a series of towing tests of a 1/10 scale version of the turbine system in Limerick Docks in late 2015 in order to understand and assess the performance of the technology.

WestWave – ESB’s WestWave project aims to develop a 5 MW wave energy project off the west coast of Ireland, at a site near Killard, Co. Clare. The current phase of the project is developing the foundations for this project to allow the capital investment and procurement phase. Ongoing activity includes securing the required permits, conducting site investigations, including detailed wave measurements, and developing the design and functional specificati on of the project. It is anticipated that applications for the site’s Foreshore Lease and onshore planning permission will be lodged in 2016.

 

MARINE SPATIAL PLANNING POLICY
Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) is not currently used as a decision making tool. However, the Marine Coordination Group is progressing the development of MSP in Ireland, work that will continue in the short and medium term.

The 2014 EU Directive on a Framework for Maritime Spatial Planning requires Member States to put maritime spatial plans in place by March 2021 at the latest. Ireland has until 2016 to transpose this directive into Irish law. The Department of the Environment, Community and Local Government will play a leading role in the development of a maritime spatial planning framework for Ireland.

As part of the Department of Communications, Energy & Natural Resources (DCENR) Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan (OREDP), a Strategic Environmental Assessment for Marine Renewables was also conducted in 2010.

Separately the Marine Renewables Industry Association (MRIA), the trade association for marine renewables on the island of Ireland, has previously published a White Paper on Initial Development zones (MRIA, 2010). This proposed that four initial Development Zones (IDZs) for Ocean Energy should be prioritized by the Government and that efforts to achieve the 2020 target should be focused on these zones.

Site selection is a matter for project developers in the first instance, subject to the relevant consent processes. Work has now commenced, through the OREDP, on mapping opportunity and constraints to inform future development.

AUTHORITIES INVOLVED
The competent authorities currently involved in consenting for offshore energy projects are:

• Department of the Environment, Community and Local Government (DECLG) – responsible for consenting of activities/developments on the foreshore (HMW to 12 mile territorial sea limit);
• The Commission for Energy Regulation (CER) – responsible for licensing construction of new generating stations and their subsequent operation.
• EirGrid and ESB – transmission and distribution operators, respectively;
• Local planning authorities or An Bord Pleanála (The Irish Planning Authority) – responsible for consenting onshore components development.

CONSENTING PROCESS
The main steps for the offshore energy project consenting are the following:

• Foreshore license/lease (managed by DECLG) – while the nature, scale and impact of these projects can vary significantly, all require foreshore consent (i) to investigate/survey the site; (ii) to construct the development (and cabling); and (iii) to occupy the property. Currently, both the development consent and property management aspects of a foreshore lease or license are addressed simultaneously by the Minister for the Environment, Community and Local Government, when determining whether it is in the public interest to grant a foreshore lease or license;
• Permission to generate and grid connection (managed by CER) – generators with an installed capacity of 1 MW or less do not need to apply to the CER for an authorization to construct or a license to generate. Grid connection is subject to a separate administrative process involving either the transmission or the distribution system operators;
• Onshore development – where a project includes onshore components, consent for development will be required from relevant local planning authorities and/or An Bord Pleanála (The Irish Planning Authority).

There is no specific authority responsible to manage the ocean energy consenting process as a whole (“one stop shop” facility or entity). However, the new Maritime Area and Foreshore (Amendment) Bill will align the foreshore consent system with the planning system in order to streamline the EIA and AA processes for projects.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
An EIA is assessed on a case-by-case basis. In the case of a proposed development on the foreshore, DECLG formally decides as part of the foreshore consent process whether or not a project would or would not be likely to have significant effects on the environment.

DECLG undertakes a screening exercise in respect of each application to determine if an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is required. Where a proposed development also requires planning consent for development onshore, the relevant planning authority (a local authority or An Bord Pleanála) as part of the planning process will decide if an EIA is required or not.

In the case of a proposed development on the foreshore, if an EIA is required the foreshore lease/license application to DECLG will have to be accompanied by an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) in accordance with section 13A(1)(c) of the Foreshore Act, 1933.

LEGISLATION AND REGULATION
There is no specific legislation to deal solely with ocean energy. Ocean energy developments are subject to the same legislation as any other marine development.

The Irish Government has recently published the Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan which enables cross government support and collaboration for the sector and will inform ongoing review of relevant legislation.

The current Foreshore Act has been in place since 1933 and has been subject to limited updating in that time. A new Maritime Area and Foreshore (Amendment) Bill is expected to be enacted. The new Bill will aim to align the foreshore consent system with the planning system, to streamline the EIA process for projects and to provide a coherent mechanism to facilitate and manage development in maritime sea.

Two other policy initiatives are also of relevance. The Government of Ireland published ‘Harnessing our Ocean Wealth’ in 2012. This is an Integrated Marine Plan for Ireland which has the goal of delivering a thriving maritime economy, healthy ecosystems and more engagement with the sea. As part of the implementation of this policy two specific Task Forces have been created: the Enablers Task Force, which has been working on MSP at a strategic level, and the Developers Task Force.

With respect to the OREDP, a Steering Group has been created to take forward actions identified in the plan. These actions are being delivered by three working groups with particular focus on the environment, job creation and infrastructure development.

CONSULTATION
The provisions of the Public Participation Directive were applied to consent applications under the Foreshore Acts which require the preparation of an EIS by the European Communities (Foreshore) Regulations 2009 (S.I. No. 404 of 2009) and the European Union (Environmental Impact Assessment) (Foreshore) Regulations 2012 (S.I. No. 433 of 2012).

These regulations amend the Foreshore Act and apply to the consideration of foreshore consent applications subject to EIA. These regulations provide an enhanced level of public participation and information sharing on environmental matters.

GUIDANCE AND ADVICE
There are the following guidance:

• Guidance notes for pre-application consultation and investigate licenses available on the Department of the Environment, Community and Local Government (DECLG) website.
• Guidance for Authorization to Construct and License to Generate are available on the Commission for Energy regulation website.

TEST CENTERS
Usually deployment in designated test centers are already pre-consented so developers do not have to submit a full application comprising all the typical consents providing certain initial conditions are met.

The Galway Bay Test Site is currently operated as a pre-consented test site where developers may test their quarter scale devices. The lease for the Galway Bay Test Site will be reviewed in 2016.

In the case of the Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site, is it anticipated that a lease will be granted to the Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) and individual WEC developers will be required to apply for a license consenting authorities (currently DECLG) to use an area within the test site. It is intended that the SEAI will produce guidance for developers in this regard going forward.