On the instigation of H.S.H. Prince Albert II, the environment and subjects related to sustainable development are among the most important political priorities in the State of Monaco, on both a national and international level. The actions of the Princely Government take into account the topics of biodiversity, the management of resources and the reduction of greenhouse gases and also a specific policy towards the establishment of a sustainable city.
The Principality of Monaco joined OES in June 2013. This action was part of the Government concerns for combating climate change and recognizing the relevance of international cooperation. Monaco is a coastal country with 2,02 km2 of area, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea, with a coast length of 3829 m.
In Monaco, ocean energy projects have been demonstrated through the usage of sea water heat pumps to generate energy.
SUPPORTING POLICIES FOR OCEAN ENERGY
In line with the provisions of the Kyoto Protocol, Monaco has set itself the target of improving energy efficiency by 20% and achieving 20% of final energy consumption from renewable sources by 2020. To this end, the deployment of the Climate and Energy Plan includes technical, regulatory, financial and awareness-raising campaigns.
In addition, the Princely Government funds projects in several developing countries, forming part of the Clean Development Mechanisms (CDMs) laid down by the Kyoto Protocol.
It is implemented by the technical departments as the department of maritime affairs and the department of the environment, the marine police and one NGO: Association Monegasque pour la Protection de la Nature that will be in charge of the production and management control plan.
The OPTIMA PAC initiative is a research project that checks how well the existing demonstration projects in Monaco perform against three targets:
Various buoys have been installed in partnership with the National Centre for Archiving Swell Measurements and the department of public works. Four types of data are measured: height, direction and frequency of waves and temperature of the water surface. Live data is available on the website: http://candhis.cetmef.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/
This operation is mainly linked to Monaco’s six-hectare offshore extension project.
Monaco wishes to develop ocean energy. Currently, sea water heat pumps produce a significant share of the Principality’s energy needs.
In Monaco, the sea is used as a renewable energy source for the development of a heat pump system. The ï¬rst heat pump with sea water in Monaco dates back to 1963. 75 sea water heat pumps produce 20% of the energy consumed in the Principality (about 187.6 GWh/year).
Many buildings located on the coast benefit from this reversible system, for heating in winter and air-conditioning in summer. These save the equivalent to 15,000 metric tons of oil per year.
The number of sea water heat pumps is expected to increase in the near future due to some on-going projects.
MARINE SPATIAL PLANNING POLICY
It is implemented by the technical departments as the department of maritime affairs and the department of the environment, the marine police and one NGO, the Association Monegasque pour la Protection de la Nature.
Pre-selected areas for ocean energy have not been defined. Site selection is carried out by the Government according to the need or proposals.
• Department of the Environment – checks if the project is compatible with the local environment;
If the project could be of interest for the Principality of Monaco, a technical committee will be set up to analyze and implement the project. The duration of the process will depend on the project.
The specific authority responsible to manage the ocean energy consenting process as a whole is the Ministry of Public Works, the Environment and Urban Development.
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
The decision of conducting an EIA is taken by the Government through the Ministry of Public Works, the Environment and Urban Development.
LEGISLATION AND REGULATION
This process should be carried out before the project implementation. The mandatory consultee is the Ministry of Public Works, the Environment and Urban Development.
GUIDANCE AND ADVICE