Country Reports

On the instigation of H.S.H. Prince Albert II, the environment and subjects related to sustainable development are among the most important political priorities in the State of Monaco, on both a national and international level. The actions of the Princely Government take into account the topics of biodiversity, the management of resources and the reduction of greenhouse gases and also a specific policy towards the establishment of a sustainable city.

The Principality of Monaco joined OES in June 2013. This action was part of the Government concerns for combating climate change and recognizing the relevance of international cooperation. Monaco is a coastal country with 2,02 km2 of area, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea, with a coast length of 3829 m.

In Monaco, ocean energy projects have been demonstrated through the usage of sea water heat pumps to generate energy.

SUPPORTING POLICIES FOR OCEAN ENERGY 


NATIONAL STRATEGY
The Government pursues a decisive sustainable development policy aimed at achieving full compliance with the Principality’s undertakings, in particular with the Kyoto Protocol. This intention is expressed through local initiatives on the Monegasque territory and through cooperation work in developing countries.

In line with the provisions of the Kyoto Protocol, Monaco has set itself the target of improving energy efficiency by 20% and achieving 20% of final energy consumption from renewable sources by 2020. To this end, the deployment of the Climate and Energy Plan includes technical, regulatory, financial and awareness-raising campaigns.


Carbon neutral by 2050
During his participation at the 21st United Nations Conference on Climate Change in 2015 in Paris, H.S.H. Prince Albert II of Monaco reaffirmed directions for the Principality. Monaco will take part in efforts to stabilise the global warming of the planet by reducing its greenhouse gas emissions by 30% in 2020, 50% in 2030 and to achieve carbon neutrality in 2050 with respect to the reference date of 1990.

In addition, the Princely Government funds projects in several developing countries, forming part of the Clean Development Mechanisms (CDMs) laid down by the Kyoto Protocol.


PUBLIC FUNDING PROGRAMMES
Within the framework of the Climate and Energy Plan and the COP21 agreement, two dedicated funding instruments have been created:

  • The Energy-Sustainable Development Fund. The money is generated through the sale of electricity and creates funds for the promotion of renewable energies and other sustainable development objectives.
     
  • The National Green Fund
    The Government holds 100% of the shares in this venture capital firm, known as “Société d’Aide à la Création et au Développement d’Entreprise” (SACDE), the aim of which is to support innovative Monegasque companies. Those with innovative projects (under development) can contact the Government, which studies opportunities for financial support - contributing to the share capital of the entity to be created in the Principality, additional loans, etc.


MARINE SPATIAL PLANNING POLICY
In Monaco there are:

  • 2 Marine Protected Areas
  • 3 Restricted Areas
  • 7 Areas of ecological interests

It is implemented by the technical departments as the department of maritime affairs and the department of the environment, the marine police and one NGO: Association Monegasque pour la Protection de la Nature that will be in charge of the production and management control plan.


PERMITTING AND LICENCING PROCESS FOR OCEAN ENERGY PROJECTS
A proposal has to be sent to the Ministry of Public Works, the Environment and Urban Planning, then if the project is of interest for the Principality of Monaco, a technical committee will be set up to analyze and implement the project.

The OPTIMA PAC initiative is a research project that checks how well the existing demonstration projects in Monaco perform against three targets:

  • Offering an industrial range of sea water heat pumps compatible with sustainable development
     
  • Controlling environmental impacts
     
  • Optimising design and operation

Various buoys have been installed in partnership with the National Centre for Archiving Swell Measurements and the department of public works. Four types of data are measured: height, direction and frequency of waves and temperature of the water surface. Live data is available on the website: http://candhis.cetmef.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/

This operation is mainly linked to Monaco’s six-hectare offshore extension project.

Monaco wishes to develop ocean energy. Currently, sea water heat pumps produce a significant share of the Principality’s energy needs.

In Monaco, the sea is used as a renewable energy source for the development of a heat pump system. The first heat pump with sea water in Monaco dates back to 1963. 75 sea water heat pumps produce 20% of the energy consumed in the Principality (about 187.6 GWh/year).

Many buildings located on the coast benefit from this reversible system, for heating in winter and air-conditioning in summer. These save the equivalent to 15,000 metric tons of oil per year.

The number of sea water heat pumps is expected to increase in the near future due to some on-going projects.


EVER is the annual exhibition and international conference event on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies, held in the Grimaldi Forum, Monte Carlo, Monaco: http://conference.evermonaco.com/

MARINE SPATIAL PLANNING POLICY
Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) policy exists in Monaco in what concerns to some protected or restricted marine areas.

It is implemented by the technical departments as the department of maritime affairs and the department of the environment, the marine police and one NGO, the Association Monegasque pour la Protection de la Nature.

Pre-selected areas for ocean energy have not been defined. Site selection is carried out by the Government according to the need or proposals.

AUTHORITIES INVOLVED
The authorities involved in the consenting process are:

• Department of the Environment – checks if the project is compatible with the local environment;
• Department of Urban Amenities – manages the concessions (e.g. electricity, water);
• Department of Maritime Affairs – manages the MSP.

CONSENTING PROCESS
A proposal has to be sent to the Ministry of Public Works, the Environment and Urban Development.

If the project could be of interest for the Principality of Monaco, a technical committee will be set up to analyze and implement the project. The duration of the process will depend on the project.

The specific authority responsible to manage the ocean energy consenting process as a whole is the Ministry of Public Works, the Environment and Urban Development.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
An Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is required if the project can possibly affect the maritime traffic, restricted areas, marine protected areas and/or the environment in general.

The decision of conducting an EIA is taken by the Government through the Ministry of Public Works, the Environment and Urban Development.

LEGISLATION AND REGULATION
There is no legislation nor regulation for ocean energy.

CONSULTATION
Consultation is usually a legal requirement if there is any requirement for Public Funds.

This process should be carried out before the project implementation. The mandatory consultee is the Ministry of Public Works, the Environment and Urban Development.

GUIDANCE AND ADVICE
There is no specific guidance available to help during the process, but the technical services can assist the applicant on the process.