Country Reports

On the instigation of H.S.H. Prince Albert II, the environment and subjects related to sustainable development are among the most important political priorities in the State of Monaco, on both a national and international level. The actions of the Princely Government take into account the topics of biodiversity, the management of resources and the reduction of greenhouse gases and also a specific policy towards the establishment of a sustainable city.
 

The Principality of Monaco joined the OES in June 2013. This action was part of the Government concerns for combating climate change and recognizing the relevance for international cooperation. Monaco is a coastal country with 2,02 km2 of area, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea, with a coast length of 3829 m. 

In Monaco, ocean energy projects have been demonstrated through the usage of sea water heat pumps to generate energy.

 

ENERGY POLICY

The Government pursues a decisive sustainable development policy aimed at achieving full compliance
with the Principality’s undertakings, in particular with the Kyoto Protocol. This intention is expressed through local initiatives on the Monegasque territory and through cooperation work in developing countries. In line with the provisions of the Kyoto Protocol, Monaco has set itself the target of improving energy efficiency by 20% and achieving 20% of final energy consumption from renewable sources by 2020. To this end, the deployment of the Climate and Energy Plan includes technical, regulatory, financial and awareness-raising campaigns.


CARBON NEUTRAL BY 2050
During his participation at the 21st United Nations Conference on Climate Change in 2015 in Paris, H.S.H. Prince Albert II of Monaco reaffirmed directions for the Principality. Monaco will take part in efforts to stabilise the global warming of the planet by reducing its greenhouse gas emissions by 30% in 2020, 50% in 2030 and to achieve carbon neutrality in 2050 with respect to the reference date of 1990. In addition, the Princely Government funds projects in several developing countries, forming part of the Clean Development Mechanisms (CDMs) laid down by the Kyoto Protocol.


PUBLIC FUNDING PROGRAMMES
Within the framework of the Climate and Energy Plan, a dedicated funding instrument has been created, the Energy-Sustainable Development Fund. The money is generated through the sale of electricity and creates funds for the promotion of renewable energies and other sustainable development objectives. Then, the Government holds 100% of the shares in this venture capital firm, known as “Société d’Aide à la Création et au Développement d’Entreprise” (SACDE), the aim of which is to support innovative Monegasque companies.

Those with innovative projects (under development) can contact the Government, which studies opportunities for financial support - contributing to the share capital of the entity to be created in the Principality, additional loans, etc.


MARINE SPATIAL PLANNING POLICY
In Monaco there are:

  • 2 Marine protected areas
  • 3 Restricted areas
  • 7 Areas of ecological interests

It is implemented by the technical departments as the department of maritime affairs and the department of the environment, the marine police and one NGO, the Association Monegasque pour la Protection de la Nature. 


PERMITTING AND LICENSING PROCESS FOR OCEAN ENERGY PROJECTS
A proposal has to be sent to the Ministry of Public Works, the Environment and Urban Planning, then if the project is of interest for the Principality of Monaco, a technical committee will be set up to analyze and implement the project.


TEST SITES
Monaco wishes to develop ocean energy. Currently, sea water heat pumps produce a significant share of the Principality’s energy needs.

 


RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT


KEY R&D INSTITUTIONS AND RELEVANT R&D PROJECTS
The OPTIMA PAC initiative is a research project that checks how well the existing demonstration projects in Monaco perform against three targets:

  • Offering an industrial range of sea water heat pumps compatible with sustainable development;
  • Controlling environmental impacts;
  • Optimising design and operation.

A buoy was installed in partnership with the National Centre for Archiving Swell Measurements. It measures 4 types
of data:


 


TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION


OPERATIONAL PROJECTS
In Monaco, the sea is used as a renewable energy source for the development of a heat pump system. The first heat pump with sea water in Monaco dates back to 1963.

In 2015, 70 heat pumps produced 17% of the energy consumed in the Principality (about 176 602 MWh/year).

Many buildings located on the coast benefit from this reversible system, for heating in winter and air conditioning in summer. These save the equivalent of 15,000 metric tons of oil per year.


PLANNED DEPLOYMENTS
The number of sea water heat pumps is expected to increase in the near future due to some ongoing projects.

 

 

March 31st until April 2nd 2015 - EVER Monaco (Ecologic Vehicles/renewable Energies): A roundtable was dedicated to the “State of play and potential and development of Marine Energies”, in the presence of Mrs Ana Brito Melo, as Executive Secretary of the OES.